Chocolate - Wiley Online Library

Loading...

Chocolate ‫ﱛﱠﱛ‬

Chocolate ‫ﱛﱠﱛ‬ HISTORY, CULTURE, AND HERITAGE Edited by

Louis Evan Grivetti University of California Davis, California

Howard-Yana Shapiro Mars Incorporated, and University of California Davis, California

A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication

Copyright © 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All right reserved Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permission. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information on our other products and services or for technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic formats. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Grivetti, Louis. Chocolate : history, culture, and heritage / Louis Evan Grivetti, Howard-Yana Shapiro. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-0-470-12165-8 (cloth) 1. Chocolate–History. I. Shapiro, Howard-Yana. II. Title. TX767.C5G747 2009 641.3'374–dc22 2008041834 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

To our parents and wives: Blanche Irene Carpenter Grivetti Rex Michael Grivetti Georgette Stylanos Mayerakis Grivetti Pesche Minke Shapiro Yankel Shapiro Nancy J. Shapiro

Contents Foreword, xi Preface, xiii Acknowledgments, xvii Chocolate Team (1998–2009), xix

PART I

8

Louis Evan Grivetti

9

Beginnings and Religion 1 Cacao Use in Yucatán Among the Pre-Hispanic Maya, 3

Gabrielle Vail

2

Tempest in a Chocolate Pot: Origin of the Word Cacao, 17

Martha J. Macri

3

Ancient Gods and Christian Celebrations: Chocolate and Religion, 27

Louis Evan Grivetti and Beatriz Cabezon

4

Chocolate and Sinful Behaviors: Inquisition Testimonies, 37

Nation of Nowhere: Jewish Role in Colonial American Chocolate History, 49

Chocolate as Medicine: Imparting Dietary Advice and Moral Values Through 19th Century North American Cookbooks, 115

Deanna Pucciarelli

PART III

Serving and Advertising 10 Chocolate Preparation and Serving Vessels in Early North America, 129

Amanda Lange

11

Silver Chocolate Pots of Colonial Boston, 143

Gerald W. R.Ward

12

Beatriz Cabezon, Patricia Barriga, and Louis Evan Grivetti

5

From Bean to Beverage: Historical Chocolate Recipes, 99

Is It A Chocolate Pot? Chocolate and Its Accoutrements in France from Cookbook to Collectible, 157

Suzanne Perkins

13

Celia D. Shapiro

Commercial Chocolate Pots: Reflections of Cultures, Values, and Times, 177

Margaret Swisher

PART II

Medicine and Recipes 6 Medicinal Chocolate in New Spain, Western Europe, and North America, 67

14

Virginia Westbrook

15

Louis Evan Grivetti

7

Chocolate and the Boston Smallpox Epidemic of 1764, 89

Louis Evan Grivetti

Role of Trade Cards in Marketing Chocolate During the Late 19th Century, 183

Commercial Chocolate Posters: Reflections of Cultures, Values, and Times, 193

Margaret Swisher

16

Chocolate at the World’s Fairs, 1851–1964, 199

Nicholas Westbrook

vii

PART IV

PART VI

Economics, Education, and Crime 17 Pirates, Prizes, and Profits: Cocoa and

Colonial and Federal Eras (Part 2) 28 Dutch Cacao Trade in New Netherland During

Early American East Coast Trade, 211

the 17th and 18th Centuries, 377

Kurt Richter and Nghiem Ta

18

How Much Is That Cocoa in The Window? Cocoa’s Position in the Early American Marketplace, 219

Peter G. Rose

29

Kurt Richter and Nghiem Ta

19

“C” Is for Chocolate: Chocolate and Cacao as Educational Themes in 18th Century North America, 227

Louis Evan Grivetti

20

W. Douglas McCombs

30 31

Chocolate, Crime, and the Courts: Selected English Trial Documents, 1693–1834, 243

Contents

viii

Dark Chocolate: Chocolate and Crime in North America and Elsewhere, 255

Chocolate Makers in 18th Century Pennsylvania, 389

James F. Gay Breakfasting on Chocolate: Chocolate in Military Life on the Northern Frontier, 1750–1780, 399

Nicholas Westbrook, Christopher D. Fox, and Anne McCarty

Louis Evan Grivetti

21

Chocolate Consumption and Production in New York’s Upper Hudson River Valley, 1730–1830, 381

32

Louis Evan Grivetti

Chocolate and North American Whaling Voyages, 413

Christopher Kelly

PART V

Colonial and Federal Eras (Part 1) 22 Chocolate and Other Colonial Beverages, 265

23

Southeast/Southwest Borderlands and California 33 Blood, Conflict, and Faith: Chocolate in the

Frank Clark

Southeast and Southwest Borderlands, 1641–1833, 425

Chocolate Production and Uses in 17th and 18th Century North America, 281

Beatriz Cabezon, Patricia Barriga, and Louis Evan Grivetti

James F. Gay

24

PART VII

34

Chocolate’s Early History in Canada, 301

Louis Evan Grivetti, Patricia Barriga, and Beatriz Cabezon

Catherine Macpherson

25

A Necessary Luxury: Chocolate in Louisbourg and New France, 329

Anne Marie Lane Jonah, Ruby Fougère, and Heidi Moses

26 27

Sailors, Soldiers, and Padres: California Chocolate, 1542?–1840, 439

35

From Gold Bar to Chocolate Bar: California’s Chocolate History, 465

Bertram M. Gordon

Chocolate Manufacturing and Marketing in Massachusetts, 1700–1920, 345

PART VIII

Anne Blaschke

Caribbean and South America 36 Caribbean Cocoa: Planting and

Boston Chocolate: Newspaper Articles and Advertisements, 1705–1825, 359

Louis Evan Grivetti

Production, 481

Janet Henshall Momsen and Pamela Richardson

37

Caribbean Chocolate: Preparation, Consumption, and Trade, 493

47

Janet Henshall Momsen and Pamela Richardson

38

History of Cacao Cultivation and Chocolate Consumption in Cuba, 505

Niurka Núñez González and Estrella González Noriega

39

History of Cacao and Chocolate in Cuban Literature, Games, Music, and Culinary Arts, 523

Laura Pallas Brindle and Bradley Foliart Olsen

48 49

PART IX

50

Portuguese Royal Court and Colonial Hospitals, 1580–1830, 561

Timothy Walker Chocolate in France: Evolution of a Luxury Product, 569

Bertram M. Gordon Commerce, Colonies, and Cacao: Chocolate in England from Introduction to Industrialization, 583

Bertram M. Gordon

44

Twenty-First Century Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding the Medicinal Use of Chocolate, 651

Chinese Chocolate: Ambergris, Emperors, and Export Ware, 595

Bertram M. Gordon

PART XI

Fieldwork, Methodology, and Interpretation 51 Symbols from Ancient Times: Paleography and the St. Augustine Chocolate Saga, 669

Beatriz Cabezon and Louis Evan Grivetti

52

Laura Pallas Brindle and Bradley Foliart Olsen

53

Management of Cacao and Chocolate Data: Design and Development of a Chocolate Research Portal, 715

Matthew Lange

54

Base Metal Chocolate Pots in North America: Context and Interpretation, 723

Phil Dunning and Christopher D. Fox

55

PART X

Production, Manufacturing, and Contemporary Activities 45 Cacao, Haciendas, and the Jesuits: Letters from

Digging for Chocolate in Charleston and Savannah, 699

Blue and Gray Chocolate: Searching for American Civil War Chocolate References, 731

Louis Evan Grivetti

56

Chocolate Futures: Promising Areas for Further Research, 743

Louis Evan Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro

New Spain, 1693–1751, 607

Beatriz Cabezon

46

From Stone Metates to Steel Mills: The Evolution of Chocolate Manufacturing, 611

Rodney Snyder, Bradley Foliart Olsen, and Laura Pallas Brindle

Appendices APPENDIX 1 Lexicon and Abbreviations, 777 APPENDIX 2 Archives, Institutions, Libraries, and Museums Consulted, 797

Contents

Europe and Asia 41 Cure or Confection? Chocolate in the

43

American Heritage Chocolate, 647

Eric Whitacre,William Bellody, and Rodney Snyder

Deanna Pucciarelli and James Barrett Establishing Cacao Plantation Culture in the Atlantic World: Portuguese Cacao Cultivation in Brazil and West Africa, Circa 1580–1912, 543

Timothy Walker

42

Making Colonial Era Chocolate: The Colonial Williamsburg Experience, 635

James F. Gay and Frank Clark

Estrella González Noriega and Niurka Núñez González

40

Adulteration: The Dark World of “Dirty” Chocolate, 625

ix

3

Commonsense Rules for Working in Archives, Libraries, and Museums, 803

APPENDIX

Bertram M. Gordon and Louis Evan Grivetti

4 APPENDIX 5 APPENDIX

Digitized Resources Consulted, 807

Axel Borg and Adam Siegel APPENDIX

Beatriz Cabezon, translator

APPENDIX

6

Boston Chocolate, 1700–1825: People, Occupations, and Addresses, 817

Louis Evan Grivetti

7

APPENDIX The Ninety and Nine: Notable Chocolate-Associated Quotations, 1502–1953, 837

Chocolate Timeline, 855

Early Works on Chocolate: A Checklist, 929

Saint Augustine, Florida, 1642: Chocolate Distribution List by Name, Occupation, and Quantities Received, 809

APPENDIX

Contents

x

8 APPENDIX 9 APPENDIX

10

Nutritional Properties of Cocoa, 943

Robert Rucker

11

Index, 961

Illustration Credits, 947

Foreword T metaphysics on earth like chocolate.” Chocolate is a substance long regarded as magical, even supernatural, not

he Portuguese poet Fernando Pessoa had the right idea when he wrote early in the last century “ Look, there’s no

to mention salubrious, today for its heart-healthy properties, yesterday because of a solid medicinal reputation as well as an aphrodisiacal one. Chocolate begins as seeds in a pod, that pod the fruit of the cacao tree Theobroma cacao. Not incidentally, the scientific name means “drink of the gods,” by way of continuing the metaphysical. Until relatively recently nobody gave much thought to eating chocolate. Drink was its original use and, despite evidence of an Amazonian origin, Mesoamericans were probably its original users. Cacao was employed in ancient Maya ceremonies and rituals and later used in religious rites to keep alive the memory of Quezalcoatl, the god of the air who made earthly visits from time to time dispensing instructions on how to grow various foods, cacao among them. In addition cacao nibs (the almond-shaped seeds) were put to work as coins so that by the time the Europeans sailed into the New World cacao was well entrenched in all facets of Mesoamerican life: spiritual, nutritional, and financial. The European phase of cacao’s history dates from 1502 when Columbus, then in the Gulf of Honduras on his forth voyage encountered natives who gave him the drink xocoatl made of cacao, honey, spices, and vanilla. The Explorer carried some nibs back to Spain, where they were viewed as curiosities only and it took another introduction in 1528 by Hernando Cortés (the conqueror of Mexico) to establish the plant in Iberia. Before long the Spaniards had figured out how to turn the nibs into an agreeable drink and by 1580 cocoa had achieved widespread popularity among Spain’s elite and its cacao plantations became sources of considerable wealth. As sugar grew cheaper and more readily available in the seventeenth century, chocolate spread across Europe, chocolate houses sprang up and cocoa, although expensive, was charming everyone who could afford it. Doubtless, part of that charm resided in its alleged aphrodisiac properties, and chocolate found its way into confections and was tinkered with as candy.

An international phase of chocolate history was launched in 1819, when the first eating chocolate was produced in Switzerland. In the following decade Cadbury’s Chocolate Company opened in England, the Baker Chocolate Company in the United States, a Dutch chocolate maker produced the world’s first chocolate candy, and an instant cocoa powder was invented. The commercial chocolate industry was born. If there is little passion in my nutshell early history of chocolate, the same is not true of the pages that follow. They reflect the energy and enthusiasm of the chocolate history research group established at the University of California at Davis a decade ago with the backing of Mars, Incorporated. Led by Professor Louis Grivetti, its members have investigated myriad aspects of chocolate history and have generated mountains of materials. Nonetheless, the editors explain that their intention has not been to produce a full history of chocolate, which would have taken many more years to complete. Instead, what they have done is to assemble a veritable archive of the subject in 56 chapters and 10 appendices for which food historians will be forever grateful. The chapters are wide ranging and head in whatever directions their authors’ expertise and curiosity dictate. Within this work they are organized roughly chronologically as well as geographically and topically, so that they begin with pre-Maya cacao use and contain in the penultimate chapter searches for chocolate references made during the American Civil War. Medicinal application is a recurring theme and one chapter examines twenty-first century attitudes

xi

about such uses. Chocolate pots for serving are given considerable space and five chapters are devoted to cacao and chocolate in the Caribbean with another to cacao production in Brazil and West Africa. The final chapter scouts new terrain for future chocolate research with the appendices intended to help in this regard by disclosing archives, libraries, museums, other institutions, and digitized resources consulted in this effort. Some 99 chocolate-associated quotations are provided, as is a chocolate timeline and

Foreword

xii

an important discussion of early written works on chocolate. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the nutritional properties of cocoa. All of this may not constitute a full history of chocolate but it comes close. This work is both a major contribution to the field and to a growing body of foodhistory literature. Kenneth F. Kiple

Preface T The chocolate story spans a vast period from remote antiquity through the 21st century. Historical evidence for

o study the history of chocolate is to embark upon an extraordinary journey through time and geographical space.

chocolate use appears on all continents and in all climes, from tropical rain forests to the icy reaches of the Arctic and Antarctic. The story of chocolate is associated with millions of persons, most unknown, but some notables including economists, explorers, kings, politicians, and scientists. Perhaps no other food, with the exception of wine, has evoked such curiosity regarding its beginnings, development, and global distribution. But there is a striking difference: wine is forbidden food to millions globally because of its alcohol content but chocolate can be enjoyed and savored by all.

The chocolate history group at the University of California, Davis, was formed in 1998 at the request of Mars, Incorporated. The purpose of this association was to identify chocolate-associated artifacts, documents, and manuscripts from pre-Columbian America and to trace the development and evolution of culinary and medical uses of chocolate into Europe and back to North America. Our initial activities (1998– 2001) were characterized by archive/library research and on-site field work observations and interviews conducted in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, and the United States. The primary objectives during this research period were the following: 1. Identify early medical and culinary data associated with cacao and chocolate use in the Americas and Europe. 2. Interview traditional healers and chocolate vendors in the Americas to better understand contemporary, 20th and 21st century, cultural uses of chocolate. 3. Identify indigenous, historical, and early 20th century chocolate recipes. In 2004, the chocolate history research group was expanded after a second generous gift from Mars, Incorporated. Our team of scholars during 2004–2007 included colleagues and independent scholars affiliated

with the following institutions: Albany Institute of History and Art, Albany, New York; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of History, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts; California Parks System, Sacramento, California; Department of Ethnic Studies, California State University, San Luis Obispo, California; Colonial Deerfield, Deerfield, Massachusetts; Colonial Williamsburg, Williamsburg, Virginia; Center for Anthropology, University of Havana, Cuba; Department of Art History, East Los Angeles Community College, Los Angeles, California; Florida Institute for Hieroglyphic Research, Palmetto, Florida; Fort Ticonderoga, Ticonderoga, New York; Fortress Louisbourg, Nova Scotia, Canada; Harokopio University, Athens, Greece; Mars, Incorporated, Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania, Hackettstown, New Jersey, and McLean, Virginia; The McCord Museum, Montreal, Canada; Mills College, Oakland, California; Division of Social Sciences, New College of Florida, Sarasota, Florida; Oxford University, Oxford, England; Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, England; Parks Canada, Ottawa, Canada; Department of Community Development, Department of Engineering, Department of Food Science, Department of Native American Studies, Department of Nutrition, Graduate Group in Geography, and Peter J. Shields Library, University of California, Davis, California; and University of Massachusetts, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts. Activities during the second research period (2004–2007) continued to identify chocolate-related

xiii

documents available in archives, libraries, and museums located in Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean, and efforts were expanded into additional countries of South and North America, western and southeastern Europe, western Africa, and south Asia. Our primary objectives were the following: 1. Determine historical patterns of introduction and dispersal of chocolate products throughout North America. 2. Identify the development and evolution of chocolate-related technology in North America. 3. Identify and trace the culinary, cultural, economic, dietary/medical, military, political, and social uses of chocolate in North America from the Colonial Era through the early 20th century. 4. Develop a state-of-the-art database and web portal for the history of chocolate, to be used by students, scholars, and scientists. 5. Publish chocolate-related findings via the popular press and scholarly journals, and relate findings via local, national, and international symposia and professional meetings. Preface

xiv

The present book contains 56 chapters written by members of our chocolate history team. The story of chocolate is traced from earliest pre-Columbian times, through uses by Central American societies prior to European arrival, through the global spread of cacao trees to Africa and Asia, through Caribbean and South American trade, and ultimately the culinary and medical uses of chocolate in Europe, North America, and globally. While much of the chocolate story has been told elsewhere, it is characteristic of chocolate-associated research that new documents can be identified and brought to light daily. Historical research on chocolateassociated topics has been facilitated in recent years by important, easily available on-line services through university and governmental subscriptions, whether the Library of Congress, Paper of Record, NewsBank/ Readex, or other services. These sites (and others) have made it relatively easy to search millions of newspaper and journal/magazine advertisements and articles and other documents that cover historical North America (United States and Canada) from the 16th through early 20th centuries. These on-line services provide users with topical, keyword search engines that permit easy identification, retrieval, and cataloging of tens of thousands of documents within a short period in sharp contrast to the more laborious and time-consuming use of microfilm and microfiche services of previous decades. Still, it has been the slow, detailed tasks associated with archive and library research that has characterized much of our current efforts, and that has revealed many of the most exciting findings chronicled within the present book.

Our vision was to recruit a team of scholars with diversified training and research methods who would apply their special talents and skills to investigate chocolate history. Our team consisted of 115 colleagues and represented a broad range of professional fields: agronomy, anthropology, archaeology, archive science, art history, biochemistry, business management and product development, computer science, culinary arts, curatorial arts, dietetics, economics, engineering, ethnic studies, food science, gender studies, genetics and plant breeding, geography, history, legal studies (both historical and contemporary), library science, linguistics, marketing, museum administration, nutrition, paleography, and statistics. Team members also were skilled in a variety of languages, an important consideration given that chocolate-related documents regularly have appeared in Dutch, French, German, Greek, Italian, Latin, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish (Castiliano and contemporary national dialects), and Swedish, as well as ancient and contemporary Mesoamerican languages. Topics investigated by members of our team also reflected diversified research interests: agriculture and agronomy (cacao cultivation and ecology), collectables (chocolate-associated posters, ephemera, toys, and trading cards), culinary arts (recipes and serving equipment), culture in its broadest sense (art, linguistics, literature, music, religion, and theater), diet and health (chocolate in preventive and curative medicine), economics (advertising, import/export, manufacturing, marketing, product design, and sales), education (18th century North American school and library books), ethics (issues associated with 17th to 19th century child labor and slavery), gender (division of labor and women’s roles in chocolate production), legal issues (chocolate-associated crime and trial accounts, copyright, and patent law), military (chocolate as rations and as hospital/medical supplies), and politics (chocolate-associated legislation at local, state, regional, national, and international levels). Team members selected historical eras for their chocolate-related research that suited their interests, talents, and previous experience.These conceptual eras included: Pre-Columbian America; Colonial Era North, Central, South America, and the Caribbean; American Revolutionary War Era; America and Canada in the Post-Revolutionary War Era; Early American Federal Period; Continental Exploration and Westward Expansion (both Canadian and American); Spanish and Mexican Periods (American Southeast, Southwest borderlands, and West Coast regions of North America); California Gold Rush Era; American Civil War Era; Postwar Reconstruction; Early Industrial North America; and Early Modern Era. The types of information available for inspection by team members included advertisements (magazines and newspapers, advertising posters, signs, and trade cards); archaeological materials (murals, paint-

ings, pottery, statues, and actual chocolate residues from ancient containers); art (lithographs, paintings, prints, and sculpture); commonplace books, diaries, and handwritten travel accounts; expedition records; government documents; hospital records; personal correspondence; literature (diaries, novels, and poetry); magazine articles; menus; military documents; newspaper accounts; obituaries; probate records; religious documents; and shipping manifests. During the early stages of our work, we elected not to produce an integrated global history of chocolate. In our view, such an effort would have exceeded several thousand pages in print and would have been out of date upon publication due to continued evidence uncovered almost daily during our archive, library, and museum research. Instead, the thematic chapters presented in the present book reflect in-depth snapshots

that illustrate specific themes within the breadth and scope of chocolate history. As a collection, the chapters presented herein present a common thread that reveals the sustained importance of chocolate through the millennia. The chapters also reveal where additional scholarship and future activities might be productive. It is our hope that readers of our work, those interested in expanding and furthering archive, library, and museum research on chocolate, will themselves embark upon their own voyage of discovery and make additional contributions to chocolate research. Louis Evan Grivetti Howard-Yana Shapiro Davis, California January 2009

Preface

xv

Acknowledgments T for their deep interest in history and for their vision that led to the founding of the Chocolate History Group. his book reflects the efforts of many persons and organizations. We wish to thank Deborah and Forrest Mars, Jr.

We also extend our thanks to Dr. Harold Schmitz, Chief Scientist, Mars, Incorporated, for his valuable support throughout the years. To our editors at Wiley, Jonathan Rose and Lisa Van Horn, we thank you for your skills and dedication to produce a volume that is beautiful and content rich. We thank Lee Goldstein of Lee Goldstein Design for the design of the text and insert. We thank Dr. Teresa Dillinger for her support in the early days of our research and Dr. Deanna Pucciarelli who helped manage this enormous undertaking during the last three years. We thank Steven Oerding, Senior Artist/Supervisor, and Samuel Woo, Principal Photographer, both from IET-Academic Technology Services, Mediaworks, at the University of California, Davis, for photography and map production included within the present book. We also wish to thank the Administration and Librarians of the Peter J. Shields Library, University of California, Davis, especially Daryl Morrison and Axel Borg, for their assistance in locating key volumes and manuscripts during our research. We sincerely extend our personal thanks to Mars, Incorporated for their generous support and their enduring respect and appreciation for all things chocolate, allowing us to document the enormous breadth of chocolate’s role throughout history. Finally, we thank each of the chocolate history researchers who worked as part of our team throughout the last 10 years. Our lives have been enriched by each of them! L. E. G. H.-Y. S.

xvii

Chocolate Team (1998–2009) Shelly Allen Undergraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California

Steve Beck California State Parks Service Sutter’s Fort Sacramento, California

Brent Anderson Process Development Engineer Historic Division of Mars, Incorporated Hackettstown, New Jersey

William Bellody Research and Development Officer Mars, Incorporated Hackettstown, New Jersey

Jennifer Anderson Professor Department of Anthropology California State University San Jose, California

Carmen Bernett Mars, Incorporated McLean, Virginia

Margaret Asselin Marketing Director Mars, Incorporated Hackettstown, New Jersey Richard Bailey Captain Ocean Classrooms Foundation Watch Hill, Rhode Island Diane Barker Undergraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California James Barrett Postgraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Patricia Barriga Archivist and Paleographer Mexico City, Mexico

Anne Blaschke Postgraduate Researcher Boston University Boston, Massachusetts Axel Borg Librarian Biological and Agricultural Sciences Department Shields Library University of California Davis, California Fred Bowers National Sales Director Mars, Incorporated Jasper, Georgia Laura Pallas Brindle Postgraduate Researcher University of Georgia Athens, Georgia Eileen Brown Senior Franchise Manager Mars, Incorporated McLean, Virginia

xix

Beatriz Cabezon Paleographer and Independent Scholar Davis, California Halley Carlquist Undergraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Kati Chevaux Mars, Incorporated Hackettstown, New Jersey Frank Clark Supervisor, Historic Foodways Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Williamsburg, Virginia

Chocolate Team (1998–2009)

xx

Christopher Clayton Undergraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Jean Colvin Director University of California Research Expeditions (UREP) Davis, California Karl Crannell Public Programs Coordinator Fort Ticonderoga Ticonderoga, New York Brandon Davis Undergraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Victoria Dickinson Director McCord Museum Montreal, Canada Teresa Dillinger Postgraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Cleo Dimitriadou Undergraduate Researcher Harokopio University Athens, Greece Vassiliki Dragoumanioti Undergraduate Researcher Harokopio University Athens, Greece Phil Dunning Material Culture Researcher Parks Canada Ottawa, Canada

Sylvia Escarcega Assistant Professor Department of Anthropology DePaul University Chicago, Illinois Jennifer Follett Postgraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Ruby Fougère Curatorial Collections Specialist Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada Nova Scotia, Canada Christopher D. Fox The Anthony D. Pell Curator of Collections Fort Ticonderoga Ticonderoga, New York Marjorie Freedman Professor Department of Nutrition California State University San Jose, California Esther Friedman Independent Researcher Boston, Massachusetts Enrique García -Galiano Professor Department of Food Science National University of Mexico Mexico City, Mexico Vanessa Gardia-Brito MPM/Counsel, Americas Mars, Incorporated McLean, Virginia James F. Gay Journeyman Historic Foodways Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Williamsburg, Virginia Nicole Geurin Undergraduate Researcher, University of California Davis, California Rose Giordano Postgraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California

Estrella González Noriega Investigadora Auxiliar and Adjunct Professor Center for Anthropology University of Havana Havana, Cuba Bertram M. Gordon Professor Department of History Mills College Oakland, California Jim Grieship Extension Specialist Department of Community Development University of California Davis, California

Judy Hamway Mars, Incorporated Hackettstown, New Jersey E. Jeanne Harnois Independent Researcher Boston, Massachusetts

Alexandra Kazaks Postgraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Christopher Kelly Postgraduate Researcher Department of History University of Massachusetts North Dartmouth, Massachusetts Gale Keogh-Dwyer Mars, Incorporated Hackettstown, New Jersey Amanda Lange Curatorial Department Chair and Curator of Historic Interiors Historic Deerfield Deerfield, Massachusetts Matthew Lange Postgraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California

Lisa Hartman Historic Division of Mars, Incorporated Bel Air, Maryland

Kristine Lee Undergraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California

Katy Heckendorn Undergraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California

Julio Lopez Postgraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California

Jeya Henry Professor Department of Nutrition and Molecular Biology Oxford Brookes University Oxford, England

Catherine Macpherson Independent Researcher McCord Museum Montreal, Canada

Martha Jimenez Postgraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California

Martha J. Macri Professor Department of Native American Studies University of California Davis, California

Aliza Johnson Undergraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Anne Marie Lane Jonah Historian Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada Nova Scotia, Canada

Silviu Magarit Undergraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Deborah Mars President, Advisory Board Historic Division of Mars, Incorporated McLean, Virginia

Chocolate Team (1998–2009)

Louis Evan Grivetti Professor Emeritos Department of Nutrition University of California Davis, California

Lois Kampinski Independent Scholar Washington, DC

xxi

Antonia-Leda Matala Assistant Professor Department of Nutrition Harokopio University Athens, Greece Anne McCarty Director of Membership and Special Initiatives Fort Ticonderoga Ticonderoga, New York W. Douglas McCombs Curator of History Albany Institute of History and Art Albany, New York Timoteo Mendoza Advisor to the California Department of Education Madera, California Chocolate Team (1998–2009)

xxii

Catlin Merlo Undergraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Janet Henshall Momsen Professor Emerita Department of Community Development University of California Davis, California Victor Montejo Professor Department of Native American Studies University of California Davis, California Heidi Moses Archaeology Collections Manager Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada Nova Scotia, Canada Juan Carlos Motamayor Senior Scientist Mars, Incorporated Miami, Florida Mary Myers Group Research Manager of Chocolate, Cocoa, Dairy Mars, Incorporated Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania

Madeiline Nguyen Undergraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Benjamin Nowicki Postgraduate Researcher DePaul University Chicago, Illinois Niurka Nuñez González Investigadora Agregada Center for Anthropology University of Havana Havana, Cuba Bradley Foliart Olsen Postgraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Christian Ostrosky Postgraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Adriana Parra Postgraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Suzanne Perkins Art Historian and Independent Scholar Berkeley, California Sue Provenzale American Heritage Chocolate Mars, Incorporated Hackettstown, New Jersey Deanna Pucciarelli Assistant Professor Food and Consumer Sciences Ball State University Muncie, Indiana Sezin Rajandran Archivist and Independent Scholar Seville, Spain

Nataraj Naidu Undergraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California

Pamela Richardson Postgraduate Researcher Oxford University Oxford, England

Ezra Neale Postgraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California

Kurt Richter Postgraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California

Peter G. Rose Independent Researcher South Salem, New York Robert Rucker Biochemist and Nutritionist Department of Nutrition University of California Davis, California Diana Salazar Independent Researcher and Translator Davis, California Brianna Schmid Undergraduate Researcher and University of California Davis, California

Rebecca Shacker Undergraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Celia D. Shapiro Archivist and Independent Scholar Washington, DC Howard-Yana Shapiro Director of Plant Science Mars, Incorporated Mclean, Virginia, and University of California Davis, California Adam Siegal Librarian Humanities/Social Sciences Department Shields Library University of California Davis, California Rodney Snyder Mars, Incorporated Senior Research Engineer Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania Eduardo Somarriba Professor, Tropical Agroforestry Leader, Cocoa Thematic Group CATIE (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza) Turrialba, Costa Rica Ward Speirs Mars, Incorporated Hackettstown, New Jersey

Nghiem Ta Undergraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California Josef Toledano Agriculture and Agroforestry Consultant Tel Aviv, Israel Gabrielle Vail Research Scholar and Director Florida Institute for Hieroglyphic Research Division of Social Sciences New College of Florida Sarasota, Florida Lucinda Valle Instructor Department of Art History East Los Angeles Community College Los Angeles, California Victor Valle Professor Chair, Department of Ethnic Studies California State University San Luis Obispo, California Eric VanDeWal Marketing Director Mars, Incorporated Hackettstown, New Jersey Marilyn Villalobos Regional Coordinator Central America Cacao Project CATIE (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza) Turrialba, Costa Rica Timothy Walker Assistant Professor Department of History University of Massachusetts North Dartmouth, Massachusetts Gerald W. R. Ward The Katharine Lane Weems Senior Curator of Decorative Arts and Sculpture Art of the Americas Museum of Fine Arts Boston Massachusetts Nicholas Westbrook Director Fort Ticonderoga Ticonderoga, New York

Chocolate Team (1998–2009)

Harold Schmitz Mars, Incorporated McLean, Virginia

Margaret Swisher Postgraduate Researcher University of California Davis, California

xxiii

Virginia Westbrook Public Historian Ticonderoga, New York Eric Whitacre Applied Food Science and Product Design Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania

Chocolate Team (1998–2009)

xxiv

Amanda Zompetti Undergraduate Researcher University of Massachusetts North Dartmouth, Massachusetts

Loading...

Chocolate - Wiley Online Library

Chocolate ‫ﱛﱠﱛ‬ Chocolate ‫ﱛﱠﱛ‬ HISTORY, CULTURE, AND HERITAGE Edited by Louis Evan Grivetti University of California Davis, California Howard-Yan...

3MB Sizes 6 Downloads 45 Views

Recommend Documents

Athens - Wiley Online Library
analogical models influence of on design of cities, 219 ancient cities, 186. André, Jean Baptiste, 140. Andrea, J.V., 3

ssmiles - Wiley Online Library
(Humidity and Pressure as Part of a Function). Grades 9-12 ... hydrogen and oxygen atoms to form H^O). The formula used

Interview - Wiley Online Library
a book on marijuana. I found the idea both attractive and daunting. The subject was worthy of a book-length exposition,

Glossary - Wiley Online Library
Syari'ah-based product. A product already in existence since the era of Rasulullah sha- lallahu 'alaihi wasallam and law

REFERENCES - Wiley Online Library
3. M. E. Perlman, P. S. Conti, B. Schmall, and K. A. Watanabe, Int. J . Nucl. Med. Biol., 11,215. 4. T. L. Su and K. A.

References - Wiley Online Library
Agung, I.G.N. (2000b) Analisis statistik sederhana untuk pengambilan keputusan, in Populasi: Buletin Penelitian dan. Keb

Isofluran - Wiley Online Library
Serum und Urin. Bei 7 Patienten, die durchschnittlich 7,4 Stunden eine Isofluran-Anästhesie (durch- schnittlich 0,62%,

Abstracts - Wiley Online Library
Oct 14, 2016 - psychological distress among those with and without cancer in a repre- .... Malignancy of the urinary bla

bibliography - Wiley Online Library
Timber Research and Development Association (2009). Eurocode 5 Span Tables for Solid Timber Members in Floors, Ceilings

Glossary - Wiley Online Library
Some of the terminology in the Glossary was taken directly from other CCPS publications, some created by the authors, wh