Centrifugal Pumps & Fluid Flow - PDH Online

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PDHonline Course M388 (3 PDH) ____________________________________________________________________________________________

Centrifugal Pumps & Fluid Flow Practical Calculations Instructor: Jurandir Primo, PE

2012

PDH Online | PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088 www.PDHonline.org www.PDHcenter.com An Approved Continuing Education Provider

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Centrifugal Pumps & Fluid Flow – Practical Calculations

I.

INTRODUCTION

Every day a student or a professional is looking for a short and timely handbook with practical information and comprehensive application for many technical subjects, including this essay of Centrifugal Pumps & Fluid Flow Calculations. Then, this is the main motivation for the preparation of this outline. Centrifugal pumps are one of the most common components inserted in fluid systems. In order to understand how a fluid system containing process piping and accessories operate, it is necessary to understand the basic concepts of fluid flow and all relationships with centrifugal pumps. II.

FLUID FLOW FUNDAMENTALS

The basic principles of fluid flow include three concepts: The first is equations of fluid forces, the second is the conservation of energy (First Law of Thermodynamics) and the third is the conservation of mass. 1. Relationship Between Depth and Pressure Careful measurements show that the pressure of a liquid is directly proportional to the depth, and for a given depth the liquid exerts the same pressure in all directions. As shown in figure below, the pressure at different levels in the tank varies and also varies velocities. The force is due to the weight of the water above the point where the pressure is being determined. Then, pressure is defined to be force per unit area, as shown by the following equations: Pressure = Force Area

=

P = m.g A.gc

ρ.V.g A. gc

=

©2011 Jurandir Primo

Weight Area

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Where: m = Mass, in lbm; g = Acceleration (earth´s gravity), 32.17 ft/s² gc = 32.17 lbm-ft/lbf.s² A = Area, in ft² V = Volume, in ft³ Ρ = Density, in lbm/ft³

Since the volume is equal to the cross-sectional area (A) multiplied by the height (h) of liquid, then: P = ρ.h.g gc Example 1: If the tank in figure above is filled with water that has a density of 62.4 lbm/ft³, calculate the pressures at depths of 10, 20, and 30 feet. Solution: P = ρ.h.g gc P = 62.4 x 10 x 32.17 = 624 lbf/ft² = 4.33 psi (divided by 144 in² to psi) 32.17 lbm-ft/lbf-s² P = 62.4 x 20 x 32.17 = 1248 lbf/ft² = 8.67 psi (divided by 144 in² to psi) 32.17 lbm-ft/lbf-s² P = 62.4 x 30 x 32.17 = 1872 lbf/ft² = 13.00 psi (divided by 144 in² to psi) 32.17 lbm-ft/lbf-s² ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Example 2: A cylindrical water tank 40 ft high and 20 ft in diameter is filled with water with a density of 61.9 lbm/ft³. (a) What is the water pressure on the bottom of the tank? (b) What is the average force on the bottom? a) P = ρ.h.g gc P = 62.4 x 40 x 32.17 = 2476 lbf/ft² = 17.2 psi (divided by 144 in² to psi) 32.17 lbm-ft/lbf-s² b) Pressure = Force = Area Force = (Pressure x Area) = Force = 2476 lb/ft² x (π.R²) = 17.2 x (π.10²) = 777858 lbf. 2. Pascal's Law: Pascal's law states that when there is an increase in pressure at any point in a confined fluid, there is an equal increase at every other point in the container. The cylinder on the left shows a cross-section area of 1 sq. inch, while the cylinder on the right shows a cross-section area of 10 sq. inches. The cylinder on the left has a weight (force) on 1 lb acting downward on the piston, which lowers the fluid 10 inches. As a result of this force, the piston on the right lifts a 10 pound weight a distance of 1 inch.

The 1 lb load on the 1 sq. inch area causes an increase in pressure on the fluid. This pressure is distributed equally on every square inch area of the large piston. As a result, the larger piston lifts up a 10 pound weight. The bigger the cross-section area of the second piston, more weight it lifts. Since pressure equals force per unit area, then it follows that: ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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F1 / A1 = F2 / A2 1 lb / 1 sq. inch = 10 lb / 10 sq. inches The Volume formula is: V1 = V2 Then, A1.S1 = A2.S2 Or, A1 / A2 = S2 / S1 It is a simple lever machine since force is multiplied. The mechanical advantage is: MA = [S1 / S2 = A2 / A1]; can also be = [S1 / S2 = (π. r²) / (π.R²)]; or = [S1 /S2 = r² / R²] Where: A = Cross sectional area, in² S = Piston distance moved, in For the sample problem above, the MA is 10:1 (10 inches / 1 inch or 10 square inches / 1 square inch). Example 3: A hydraulic press, similar the above sketch, has an input cylinder 1 inch in diameter and an output cylinder 6 inches in diameter. a. Find the estimated force exerted by the output piston when a force of 10 pounds is applied to the input piston. b. If the input piston is moved 4 inches, how far is the output piston moved? a. Solution: F1 / A1 = F2 / A2 A1 = π. r² = 0.7854 sq. in; A2 = π. R² = 28.274 sq. in 10 / 0.7854 = F2 / 28.274 = F2 = 360 lb b. Solution S1 / S2 = A2 / A1 4 / S2 = 28.274 / 0.7854 = 4 / 36 S2 = 1 / 9 inch

©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Example 4: A hydraulic system is said to have a mechanical advantage of 40. Mechanical advantage (MA) is F2 / F1. If the input piston, with a 12 inch radius, has a force of 65 pounds pushing downward a distance of 20 inches, find: a. b. c. d.

the upward force on the output piston; the radius of the output piston; the distance the output piston moves; the volume of fluid that has been displaced;

a.

Solution:

MA = F2 / F1 = 40 = F2 / 65 = Upward force = F2 = 2600 lb b.

Solution:

Piston radius = 12 inches, then, A1 =π.r² = π. (12²) = 452.4 in² F1 / A1 = F2 / A2 65 / 452.4 = 2600 / A2 A2 = 18096 in² R² = A2 / π = 18096 / π = 5760 Output piston radius = ~76 inches c.

Solution:

The input piston displaces 20 inches of fluid, then: A1 / A2 = S2 / S1 452.4 / 18096 = S2 / 20 Output piston moves, S2 = 0.5 inch d.

Solution:

Output Volume = A2 x S2 = 18096 in² x 0.5 inch = 9048 in³ 3. Density (ρ) and Specific Gravity (Sg) a) Density (ρ) of a material is defined as mass divided by volume: Ρ = m (lb) = V (ft³) Where: ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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ρ = Density, in lb/ft³ m = Mass, in lb V = Volume, in ft³ Density of water = 1 ft³ of water at 32°F equals 62.4 lb. Then, ρwater = 62.4 lb/ft³ = 1000 Kg/m³ b) Specific Gravity is the substance density compared to water. The density of water at standard temperature is: ρwater = 1000 Kg/m³ = 1 g/cm3 = 1 g/liter So, the Specific Gravity (Sg) of water is 1.0. Example 5: If the Density of iron is 7850 kg/m3, the Specific Gravity is: Sg = 7850 kg/m3 / 1000 kg/m3 = 7.85 4. Volumetric Flow Rate The volumetric flow rate (Q - ft³/s) can be calculated as the product of the cross sectional area (A - ft²) for flow and the average flow velocity (v – ft/s). Q=Axv Example 6: A pipe with an inner diameter of 4 inches contains water that flows at an average velocity of 14 ft/s. Calculate the volumetric flow rate of water in the pipe. Q = (π.r²).v = Q = (π x 0.16² ft) x 14 ft/s = 1.22 ft³/s 5. Mass Flow Rate: The mass flow rate is related to the volumetric flow rate as shown in equation below: m=ρxV Replacing with the appropriate terms allows the calculation of direct mass flow rate: m = ρ x (A x v) Example 7: The water in the pipe, (previous example) had a density of 62.44 lb/ft³ and a velocity of 1.22 ft/s. Calculate the mass flow rate. m=ρxV= ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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m = 62.44 lb/ft³ x 1.22 ft/s = m = 76.2 lb/s 6. Continuity Equation: The continuity equation is simply a mathematical expression of the principle of conservation of mass. The continuity equation is: m (inlet) = m (outlet) (ρ1 x A1 x v1) inlet = (ρ2 x A2 x v2) outlet (ρ1 x (R1)2 x v1) inlet = (ρ2 x (R2)2 x v2) outlet Example 8: In a piping process undergoes a gradual expansion from a diameter of 6 in. to a diameter of 8 in. The density of the fluid in the pipe is constant at 60.8 lb/ft³. If the flow velocity is 22.4 ft/s in the 6 in. section, what is the flow velocity in the 8 in. section? m (inlet) = m (outlet) = (ρ1 x (R1)2 x v1) inlet = (ρ2 x (R2)2 x v2) outlet = v2 (outlet) = v1 x ρ1 x (R1)2 = ρ2 (R2)2 ρ = ρ1 = ρ2 v2 (outlet) = v1 x ρ1 x (R1)2 = ρ2 (R2) v2 (outlet) = 22.4 ft/s x 60.8 lb/ft³ x (3)2 = 60.8 lb/ft³ (4)2 v2 (outlet) = 12.6 ft/s (decrease in flow velocity in the 8 in. section). Example 9: The inlet diameter of the centrifugal pump, shown in figure below, is 28 in. and the outlet flow through the pump is 9200 lb/s. The density of the water is 49 lb/ft³. What is the velocity at the pump inlet? A = π.r² = π x (14 / 12)2 = 4.28 ft² m = ρ x A x v = 9200 lb/s v = 9200 lb/s = 9200 lb/s…… A. ρ 4.28 ft² x 49 lb/ft³

=

v = 43.9 ft/s

©2011 Jurandir Primo

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7. Reynolds Number The Reynolds Number, based on studies of Osborn Reynolds, is a dimensionless number comprised of the physical characteristics of the flow. The flow regime, called commonly laminar or turbulent, is determined by evaluating the Reynolds Number of the flow. If the Reynolds number is less than 2000, the flow is laminar. Reynolds numbers between 2000 and 3500 are sometimes referred to as transitional flows. If it is greater than 3500, the flow is turbulent. Most fluid systems in plant facilities operate with turbulent flow. The equation used to calculate the Reynolds Number for fluid flow is: Re = ρ v D μ gc

or,

Re = ρ v D = μ

Where: Re = Reynolds Number (unitless) v = Velocity (ft/sec) D = Diameter of pipe (ft) μ = Absolute Viscosity of fluid (lbf.s/ft²) ρ = Fluid Density (lb/ft³) gc = Gravitational constant (32.17 ft-lbm/lbf-s²) Reynolds numbers can also be conveniently determined using a Moody Chart. 8. Simplified Bernoulli Equation Bernoulli’s equation, results from the application of the first Law of Thermodynamics to a flow system in which no work is done by the fluid, no heat is transferred to or from the fluid, and no temperature change occurs in the internal energy. So, the general energy equation is simplified to equation below: mgz1 + mv1² + P1 v1 = mgz2 + mv2² + P2 v2 gc 2gc gc 2gc Where: m = Mass of the fluid (lbm) z = Height above reference (ft) v = Velocity (ft/s) g = Acceleration due gravity (32.17 ft/s²) gc = Gravitational constant, (32.17 ft-lbm/lbf-s²) Note: The factor gc is only required when the English System of measurement is used and mass is measured in pound mass. It is essentially a conversion factor needed to allow the units to come out directly. No factor is necessary if mass is measured in slugs or if the metric system of measurement is used. Multiplying all terms of the above equation, by the factor g c / m.g, the form of Bernoulli’s equation is: z1 + v1² + P1 v1 gc = z2 + v2² + P2 v2 gc = 2g g 2g g ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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9. Head The term head is used in reference to pressure. It is a reference to the height, typically in feet, of a column of water that a given pressure will support. The pressure head represents the flow energy of a column of fluid whose weight is equivalent to the pressure of the fluid. The sum of the elevation head, velocity head, and pressure head of a fluid is called the total head. Thus, Bernoulli’s equation states that the total head of the fluid is constant. Example 10: Assume frictionless flow in a long, horizontal, conical pipe. The diameter is 2.0 ft at one end and 4.0 ft at the other. The pressure head at the smaller end is 16.0 ft of water. If water flows through this cone at a rate of 125.6 ft³/s, find the velocities at the two ends and the pressure head at the larger end. v1 = Q1 A1

v2 = Q2 A2

v1 = 125.6 2 π (1)

v2 = 125.6 2 π (2)

v1 = 40 ft/s

v2 = 10 ft/s

z1 + v1² + P1 v1 gc = z2 + v2² + P2 v2 gc = 2g g 2g g P2 v2 gc = P1 v1 gc + (z1 - z2) + v1² - v2² = g g 2g Considering that, P1 v1 gc = Ph1 = 16 ft; P2 v2 gc = Ph2; and (z1 - z2) = 0 g g 2

2

Ph2 = 16 ft + 0 + (40 ft/s) – (10 ft/s) = 2.(32.17 ft-lbm/lbf-s²) Ph2 = 16 ft + 0 + (1600) – (100) = 64.34 Ph2 = 39.3 ft 10. Extended Bernoulli Equation The Bernoulli equation can be modified to take into account gains and losses of head. The head loss due to fluid friction (Hf) represents the energy used in overcoming friction caused by the walls of the pipe. Then, the Extended Bernoulli equation is very useful in solving most fluid flow problems as shown below: z1 + v1² + P1 v1 gc + Hp = z2 + v2² + P2 v2 gc + Hf = 2g g 2g g Where: ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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z = Height above reference level (ft) v = Velocity of fluid (ft/s) P = Pressure of fluid (lbf/ft²) n = Volume of fluid (ft³/lbm) Hp = Head added by pump (ft) Hf = Head loss due to fluid friction (ft) g = Acceleration due to gravity (ft/s²) Example 11: Water is pumped from a large reservoir to a point 65 ft higher. How many feet of head must be added by the pump, if 8000 lb/h flows through a 6 inch pipe and the frictional head loss (Hf) is 2.0 ft? The density of the fluid is 62.4 lb/ft³, and the cross-sectional area of the pipe is 0.2006 ft². m = ρ.A.v v= v=

m ρ.A 8000 lb/h.............. (62.4 lb/ft³) (0.2006 ft²

v = 639 ft/h = 0.178 ft/s Using the Extended Bernoulli equation to determine the required pump head: z1 + v1² + P1 v1 gc + Hp = z2 + v2² + P2 v2 gc + Hf = 2g g 2g g Hp = (z2 - z1) + v1² - v2² + (P2 - P1) v gc + Hf = 2g g Considering that, (z2 - z1) = 65ft; (P2 - P1) v gc = 0; v1 = 0.178 ft/s; and Hf = 2.0 ft g Hp = 65 ft + (0.178 ft/s)2 – (0 ft/s)2 + 0 + 2 ft = 2 (32.17 ft-lbm/lbf-s²) Hp = 67 ft 11. Head Loss, Darcy – Weisbach & Moody Chart Head loss is a measure of the reduction in the total head (sum of elevation head, velocity head and pressure head) of the fluid as it moves through a fluid system. The head loss is directly proportional to the length of pipe, the square of the velocity, and a term for fluid friction called the friction factor. 2

Darcy-Weisbach Head Loss, Hf = f. L v = D 2g Where: f = Friction Factor (see Moody Chart) L = Length of pipe, ft ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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v = Velocity of fluid, ft/s D = Diameter of pipe, ft g = Acceleration due gravity (ft/s²) 12. Friction Factor, Moody Chart The Moody Chart can be used to determine the friction factor based on the Reynolds Number and the relative roughness, which is equals the average height of surface irregularities (ε) divided by the pipe diameter (D) – see specific table. Moody Chart:

Example 14: Determine the friction factor (f) for fluid flow in a pipe that has a Reynolds number of 40,000 and a relative roughness of 0.01. Using the Moody Chart, a Reynolds number of 40,000 intersects the curve corresponding to a relative roughness of 0.01 at a friction factor of 0.038 and indicates a transition zone (see top of graphic). ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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As a rule of thumb, for transition flow with Reynolds numbers between 4,000 and 100,000, SI friction factors will be of the order suggested by equation 1, whilst Imperial friction factors will be of the order suggested by equation 2. Consider the equations below only for an estimating calculation. f = ~ 0.55. Re 0.25 (1)

f = ~ 0.3.. Re 0.25 (2)

Example 14 (above): f = ~ 0.55 = 0.039 40,000 0.25

13. Darcy-Weisbach Equations The Darcy-Weisbach equation can be calculated using a relationship known as frictional head loss. The calculation takes two distinct forms. The first form is associated with the piping length and the second form is associated with the piping fittings and accessories, with a coefficient “K”. a) Darcy-Weisbach equation associated with piping length: 2

Hf = f x L v = D 2g Where: f = Friction factor (unitless) L = Length of pipe (ft) D = Diameter of pipe (ft) v = Velocity of fluid (ft/s) g = Acceleration due gravity (ft/s²) Example 15: A pipe 100 ft long and 20 inches in diameter contains water at 200°F flowing at a mass flow rate of 700 lb/s. The water has a density of 60 lb/ft³ and a viscosity of 1.978 x 10-7 lbf-s/ft². The relative roughness of the pipe is 0.00008. Calculate the head loss for the pipe. m=ρxAxv= v = m... ρxA 700 lb/s…….. = (60 lb/ft³) π (10 in)² 144 v = 5.35 ft/s v=

The Reynolds Number is: Rn = ρ v D μ gc Rn = 60 x 5.35 x (20) 12.......... (1.978 x 10-7)(32.17)

= 8.4 x 107

The Moody Chart for a Reynolds Number of 8.4 x 107 and a relative roughness of 0.00008, f = 0.012. ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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2

Hf = f L v = D 2g Hf = (0.012) 100. (5.35)² = 20 2 x 32.17 12 Hf = 0.32 ft b)

Darcy – Weisbach minor losses for fittings and accessories with a coefficient “K”:

Darcy-Weisbach equation minor losses for piping fittings and accessories is the second form, expressed in terms of the equivalent length of pipe, considering a resistance coefficient “K”, to be used according to table below: Hf = K (v² / 2g) =

Example 16: Calculate the frictional head loss (in ft) for a flow rate of 0.60 ft³/sec of water at 50°F, through a length of 100 ft with 6 inch diameter galvanized iron pipe. Use the Moody Chart to find “f”. At 50°F the properties of water are: Density = ρ = 1.94 slugs/ft³, Viscosity = μ = 2.73 x 10-5 lb-s/ft² Water velocity = V = Q / (πD²/4) = 0.60/(π(6/12)2/4) = 3.1 ft/sec Reynolds Number = Re = D x V x ρ/μ = (0.5)(3.1)(1.94) / (2.73 x 105) = 1.08 x 105 From the pipe roughness table (page 16), for Galvanized Iron: ε = 0.0005 ft Pipe roughness ratio = ε/D = 0.0005/0.5 = 0.001 From the Moody diagram, the point for Re = 1.08 x 105 and ε/D = 0.001, then f = ~0.02 ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Hf =

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f L v2 = (Given D = (6 inches/12) = 0.5 ft, L = 100 ft, v = 3.1 ft/s and f = 0.02, g = 32.17 ft/s²); D 2g

The frictional head loss becomes: Hf = (0.02) (100) (3.1)2 = 0.58 (0.5) x 2 (32.17) 14. Hazen-Williams Equation Since the approach does not require so efficient trial and error, an alternative empirical piping head loss calculation, like Hazen-Williams equation, may be preferred, as indicated below: Hf = 0.2083 (100 / C) 1.85 x Q1.85 = (in feet); D4.8655 Where:

Hf = 10.64 x Q1.85 = (in meters) C1.85 D4.8655

f = Friction head loss in feet of water (per 100 ft of pipe) C = Hazen-Williams roughness constant (see table below) Q = Volume flow (gpm) D = Inside pipe diameter (inches) L = Length of pipe, (in. or m) Hazen Williams Calculation Table:

©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Pipe or Duct Material

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Surface Roughness, ε Feet

Meters

PVC, Plastic or Glass

0.0

0.0

Commercial Steel or Wrought Iron

0.00015

0.000045

Galvanized Iron

0.0005

0.00015

Cast Iron

0.00085

0.00026

17. L/D Method for Equivalent Piping Length L/D Method is another calculation way that may be used to find the equivalent piping length for fittings and accessories and can be determined by multiplying the value of L/D of that component by the diameter of the pipe. Friction factors (f), friction minors and approximate values of L/D for common piping components, using water flow, are listed in table below:

Example 17: A fully-open Gate Valve is installed in a pipe with a diameter of 10 inches. What L/D equivalent length of pipe would cause the same head loss? From the table above, we find that the value of L/D for a full open Gate Valve is 10. Le = (L/D) D Le = 10 (10 inches) = 100 inches ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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14.1. Hazen-Williams Coefficients “C” Table The usual coefficients for friction loss calculation for some common materials can be found in the table below:

Pipe or Duct Material

Hazen-Williams Coefficient -C-

Aluminum

130 - 150

Fiber Glass Pipe - FRP

150

Cast Iron, Wrought Plain

120

Polyethylene, PE, PEH

140

Galvanized Steel, Standard Steel Pipe

100

15. Hydraulic Diameter The hydraulic diameter uses the perimeter and the area of the conduit to provide the diameter of a pipe which has proportions such that conservation of momentum is maintained. The hydraulic diameter of a Circular Tube or Duct can be expressed as: Dh = 2 r Where: r = Pipe or Duct radius (ft) The hydraulic diameter of a Circular Tube with an inside Circular Tube can be expressed as: Dh = 2 (R - r) Where: r = Inside radius of the outside tube (ft) R = Outside radius of the inside tube (ft) The hydraulic diameter of Rectangular Tubes or Ducts can be expressed as: Dh = 2 b c / (b + c) Where: b = width/height of the duct (ft) c = height/width of the duct (ft) 16. Pipe Roughness Ratio The relative piping roughness is the ratio of the surface roughness (ε – see table below), divided by the diameter (D) of the pipe or duct, as a result of equation ε / D. ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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18. Simplified Pressure Drop The equation for calculating the simplified pressure drop is: Δp = ρ x g x Hf = Where: ρ = Density of fluid, in slugs/ft³; g = Acceleration due gravity, 32.17 ft/s²; Hf = Frictional head loss. Example 18: Using the same example in problem 16 (page 13), calculate the simplified pressure drop (in psi), knowing that the frictional head loss is Hf = 0.58 and fluid density is 1.94 slugs/ft³. The simplified pressure drop is: Δp = ρ x g x Hf = Δp = 1.94 x 32.17 x 0.58 = 36 lb/ft² Δp = 36/144 psi = 0.25 psi 19. Converting Head to Pressure Converting head in feet to pressure, in psi: p = 0.433 x h x SG Where: p = Pressure (psi) h = Head (ft) SG = Specific Gravity Converting head in meter to pressure, in bar: p = 0.0981 x h x SG Where: h = Head (m) p = Pressure (bar) Converting pressure in psi to head, in feet: h = p x 2.31 / SG Where: h = Head (ft) p = Pressure (psi) ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Converting pressure in bar to head, in meter: h = p x 10.197 / SG Where: h = Head (m) p = Pressure (bar) Example 18: The pressure - psi - of a water pump operating with head 120 ft can be expressed as: p = (120 ft) x 1.0 / 2.31 = p = 52 psi 19. Viscosity and Density - Metric and Imperial System a) Metric or SI System In this system of units the kilogram (kg) is the standard unit of mass, a cubic meter is the standard unit of volume and the second is the standard unit of time. Density ρ The density of a fluid is obtained by dividing the mass of the fluid by the volume of the fluid, normally expressed as kg / cubic meter. ρ = kg/m³ Water at a temperature of 20°C has a density of 998 kg/m³. Sometimes the term “Relative Density” is used to describe the density of a fluid. Relative density is the fluid density divided by 1000 kg/m³. Water at a temperature of 20°C has a Relative density of 0.998. Dynamic Viscosity μ Viscosity describes a fluids resistance to flow. Dynamic Viscosity (sometimes referred to as Absolute Viscosity) is obtained by dividing the shear stress by the rate of shear strain. The units of Dynamic Viscosity are: Force / area x time. This unit can be combined with time (sec) to define Dynamic Viscosity. Centipoise (cP) is commonly used to describe Dynamic Viscosity. The Pascal unit (Pa) is used to describe pressure = force / area. μ = Pa•s 1.00 Pa•s = 10 Poise = 1000 Centipoise. Water temperature of 20°C has a viscosity of 1.002 cP must be converted to 1.002 x 10-3 Pa•s. ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Kinematic Viscosity v Kinematic Viscosity is measured by timing the flow of a known volume of fluid from a viscosity measuring cup, whose value is in Centistokes (cSt). The unit of the Kinematic Viscosity as area / time is: v = m²/s 1.0 m²/s = 10,000 Stokes = 1,000,000 Centistokes. Water at a temperature of 20°C has a viscosity of 1.004 x 10-6 m²/s or 1.004000 Centistokes. This value must be converted back to 1.004 x 10-6 m²/s for use in calculations. Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity Relationship Kinematic Viscosity can also be determined by dividing the Dynamic Viscosity by the fluid density. v=μ/ρ Centistokes = Centipoise / Density To understand the metric units involved in this relationship it will be necessary to use an example: Dynamic viscosity μ = Pa•s Substitute for Pa = N/m² and N = kg•m/s² Therefore μ = Pa•s = kg / (m•s) Density ρ = kg/m³ Kinematic Viscosity = v = μ / ρ = (kg/(m•s) x 10-3) / (kg/m³) = m²/s x 10-6 b) Imperial Units In this system of units the pound (lb) is the standard unit of weight, a cubic foot is the standard unit of volume and the second is the standard unit of time. The standard unit of mass is the slug. This is the mass that will accelerate by 1 ft/s when a force of one pound (lbf) is applied to the mass. The acceleration due to gravity (g) is 32.17 ft per second per second. To obtain the mass of a fluid the weight (lb) must be divided by 32.17. Density ρ Density is normally expressed as mass (slugs) per cubic foot. The weight of a fluid can be expressed as pounds per cubic foot. ρ = slugs/ft³ Water at a temperature of 70°F has a density of 1.936 slug/ft³ = (62.286 lb/ft³)

©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Dynamic Viscosity μ The units of dynamic viscosity are: Force / area x time, μ = lb•s/ft² Water at a temperature of 70°F has a viscosity of 2.04 x 10-5 lb•s/ft² 1.0 lb•s/ft² = 47880.26 Centipoise Kinematic Viscosity v The units of Kinematic Viscosity are area / time v = ft²/s 1.00 ft²/s = 929.034116 Stokes = 92903.4116 Centistokes Water at a temperature of 70°F has a viscosity of 10.5900 x 10-6 ft²/s (0.98384713 Centistokes) Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity Relationship Kinematic Viscosity = Dynamic Viscosity / Density v=μ/ρ The Imperial unit of Kinematic Viscosity is ft²/s. To understand the Imperial units involved in this relationship it will be necessary to use an example: Dynamic viscosity μ = lb•s/ft² Density ρ = slug/ft³ Substitute for slug = lb/32.17 ft•s² Density ρ = (lb/32.174 ft•s²)/ft³ = (lb/32.17•s²)/ft4 Note: slugs/ft³ can be expressed in terms of lb•s²/ ft 4 Kinematic Viscosity v = (lb•s/ft²)/(slug/ft³), substitute lb•s²/ ft 4 for slug/ft³ = Kinematic Viscosity v = (lb•s/ft²) / (lb•s²/ ft4) = ft²/s c) Conversions It is possible to convert between the Imperial system and the Metric system by substituting the equivalent of each dimension with the appropriate value. 1 slug/ft³ = 515.36 kg/m³. The density of water is 1.94 slug/ft³ or 1000 kg/m³ (1 gr/cm³). Table of Water Properties T (°F)

Density (slug/ft3)

v (ft2/s)

T (°C)

Density (kg/m3)

v (m2/s)

Water

70

1.936

1.05 x 105

20

998.2

1.00 x 106

Water

40

1.94

1.66 x 105

5

1000

1.52 x 106

Seawater

60

1.99

1.26 x 105

16

1030

1.17 x 106

Fluid

©2011 Jurandir Primo

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20. Moody Friction Factor, Re & ε/D Relationship There are equations available that give the relationships between Moody friction factor, Re and ε/D for four different flow regions of the Moody diagram. The four regions of the Moody diagram are: a) Laminar flow - Re < 2100 - the straight line at the left side of the Moody diagram; b) Smooth pipe turbulent flow – Re > 4000 - the dark curve labeled “smooth pipe” in the Moody diagram – “f” is a function of Re only in this region; c) Complete turbulent flow - the portion of the diagram above and to the right of the dashed line labeled “complete turbulence” – “f” is a function of ε/D only in this region); d) Transition region - Re > 2100 < 4000 - the diagram between the “smooth pipe” solid line and the “complete turbulence” dashed line – “f” is a function of both Re and ε/D in this region. The equations to find the friction factor “f” for these four regions are shown in the box below:

Example 19: Calculate the value of the Moody friction factor “f” for a 6” pipe, 100 ft long, 270 GPM, ε/D = 0.005, assuming completely a turbulent flow - [f = 1.14 + 2 log10 (D/e)-2. Solution: Inputs

Calculations

Pipe Diameter, D =

6

in

Pipe Diameter, D =

0,5000

ft

Pipe Roughness, e =

0,005

ft

Friction Factor, f =

0,03785

Pipe Length, L =

100

ft

Cross-Sect. Area, A =

0,1963

ft2

Pipe Flow Rate, Q =

0,602

ft3/sec

Velocity, V =

3,1

ft/sec

Fluid Density, r =

1,94

slugs/ft3

Reynolds number, Re =

110.147

Fluid Viscosity, m =

0,000027

lb-sec/ft2

Note: The Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi). This pressure with perfect vacuum, will maintain a line 29.9 inches of mercury or a column of water, 33.9 feet high. ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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III. PUMPS CALCULATION PRINCIPLES 1. Head Head is a measurement of the height of a liquid column which the pump could create resulting from the kinetic energy the pump gives to the liquid. The basic principle is a pump shooting a jet of water straight up into the air, the height of the water goes up would be the head. The head is measured in units of feet while pressure is measured in pounds per square inch (psi), and is independent of pressure or liquid density. To convert head to pressure (psi) the following formula applies: Head (ft) = Pressure (psi) x 2.31 / Specific Gravity (SG) For water considering atmospheric pressure at sea level it is: Head = 14.7 X 2.31 / 1.0 = 33.9 ft Thus, 33.9 feet is the theoretical maximum suction lift for a pump at sea level. 1.1 Types of Head Static Head – is the vertical distance from the water level at the source to the highest point where the water must be delivered. It is the sum of static lift and static discharge. Static Suction Head - or static lift is the vertical distance between the center line of the pump and the height of the water source when the pump is not operating. The Static Suction Head (h) is positive when liquid line is above pump centerline and negative when liquid line is below pump centerline, as can be seen at the sketch below.

Static Discharge Head - The static discharge head is a measure of the elevation difference between the center line of the pump and the final point of use. ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Pressure Head - refers to the pressure on the liquid in the reservoir feeding a pump operating in a pressurized tank. If the fluid is under vacuum we can convert to the absolute pressure to head instead of atmospheric pressure. Vacuum is often read in inches of mercury, then a formula to convert it to head is: Feet of liquid = 1.133 x inches of mercury Specific gravity Total Dynamic Head - is the vertical distance from source water level to point of discharge when pumping at required capacity, pins Velocity Head, friction, inlets and exit losses. Total Dynamic Discharge Head - is the Total Dynamic Head minus Dynamic Suction Lift or plus Dynamic Suction Head. Dynamic Suction Head - is the vertical distance from source water level to centerline of pump, minus Velocity Head, entrance, friction, but not minus internal pump losses. Velocity Head - Velocity head also known as dynamic head is a measure of a fluid’s kinetic energy. In most installations velocity head is negligible in comparison to other components of the total head (usually less than one foot). Velocity head is calculated using the following equation: Vh = v² / 2g. Where: Vh = Velocity head, ft v = Velocity of water, ft/s g = Acceleration of gravity 32.17 ft/s² The velocity head varies at different points in the cross section of a flow. A Pitometer may be used to take a number of readings at different points in piping, as can be seen in table below: Velocity ft/s 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

Velocity Head ft. 0.02 0.06 0.14 0.25 0.39

Velocity ft/s 6.0 7.0 8.0 8.5 9.0

Velocity Head ft. 0.56 0.76 1.0 1.12 1.25

Velocity ft/s. 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5

Velocity Head ft. 1.4 1.55 1.7 1.87 2.05

Velocity ft/s 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0

Velocity Head ft. 2.24 2.62 3.05 3.50 6.20

21. Vapor Pressure A fluid’s vapor pressure is the force per unit area that a fluid exerts as an effort to change phase from a liquid to a vapor, and depends on the fluid’s chemical and physical properties. At 60°F, the vapor pressure of water is approximately 0.25 psia; at 212°F (boiling point of water) the vapor pressure is 14.7 psia (atmospheric pressure). Imperial and Metric Relations: 1 foot of head = 0.433 psi = ~0.030 kg/cm² 1.0 psi = 0.0703 kg/cm² = 2.31 feet ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Water Vapor Pressure - Suction Head: Temperature

Abs. Water Vapor Pressure

Max. Elevation





psi/psia

bar

(m)

(ft)

0

32

0.0886

0.0061

0.062

0.2044

5

40

0.1217

0.0084

0.085

0.2807

10

50

0.1781

0.0122

0.125

0.4108

15

60

0.2563

0.0176

0.180

0.5912

21

70

0.3631

0.0250

0.255

0.8376

25

77

0.4593

0.0316

0.322

1.0594

30

86

0.6152

0.0424

0.432

1.4190

35

95

0.8153

0.0562

0.573

1.8806

40

104

1.069

0.0737

0.751

2.4658

45

113

1.389

0.0957

0.976

3.2040

50

122

1.789

0.1233

1.258

4.1267

55

131

2.282

0.1573

1.604

5.2639

60

140

2.888

0.1991

2.030

6.6618

65

149

3.635

0.2506

2.555

8.3849

70

158

4.519

0.3115

3.177

10.424

75

167

5.601

0.3861

3.938

12.9199

80

176

6.866

0.4733

4.827

15.8379

85

185

8.398

0.5790

5.904

19.3718

90

194

10.167

0.7010

7.148

23.4524

95

203

12.257

0.8450

8.618

28.2735

100

212

14.695

1.0132

10.332

33.8973

Note: In the Imperial system of units, the unit used for mass is the slug and not the lbm. 1 slug = 32.174 lbm. International System - 1 Newton (N) = 1 kg m/s2

Imperial - 1 lbf = 1 slug ft/s2

Obs: Water: ρw = 62.4 lb/ft3 - do not use this value - instead, use ρw = 1.94 slug/ft3. Manometry ρgh (kg/m 3) * (m/s2)* (m) = (kg m/s2) / m2 = N/m2 (slug/ft3) * (ft/s2) * (ft) = (slug ft/s2) / ft2 = lbf/ft2 ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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22. Altitude and Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric pressure is often measured with a mercury barometer, and a height of approximately 760 millimeters (30 in) of mercury is often used to measure the atmospheric pressure. At sea level, the weight of the air presses on us with a pressure of approximately 14.7 lbs/in2. 1 atmosphere = 100 kPa or 14.7 psi is the pressure that can lift water approximately 10.3 m (33.9 ft). Thus, a diver underwater 10.3 m (33.9 ft) experiences a pressure of about 2 atmospheres (1 atm of air plus 1 atm of water). This is the suction maximum height to which a column of water can be drawn up. At higher altitudes, less air means less weight and less pressure, then, pressure and density of air decreases with increasing elevation. Altitude and atmospheric pressure are according to tables below: ALTITUDE AND ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE ALTITUDE AT SEA LEVEL

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

Feet

Meters

Psia

Kg/cm² abs.

0.0 500.0

0.0 153.0

14.69 14.43

1.033 1.015

1000.0

305.0

14.16

0.956

1500.0

458.0

13.91

0.978

2000.0

610.0

13.66

0.960

2500.0

763.0

13.41

0.943

3000.0

915.0

13.17

0.926

3500.0

1068.0

12.93

0.909

4000.0

1220.0

12.69

0.892

4500.0

1373.0

12.46

0.876

5000.0

1526.0

12.23

0.860

6000.0

1831.0

11.78

0.828

7000.0

2136.0

11.34

0.797

8000.0

2441.0

10.91

0.767

9000.0

2746.0

10.50

0.738

10000.0

3050.0

10.10

0.710

15000.0

4577.0

8.29

0.583

PRACTICAL SUCTION LIFTS AT VARIOUS ELEVATIONS ABOVE SEA LEVEL ELEVATION

Barometer Theoretical Practical Vacuum Reading Suction Lift Suction Lift Gauge lb/sq. in.

feet

feet

inches

At sea level ¼ mile – 1320 ft – above sea level ½ mile – 2640 ft – above sea level

14.7 14.0 13.3

33.9 32.4 30.8

22 21 20

19.5 18.6 17.7

¾ mile – 3960 ft – above sea level 1 mile – 5280 ft – above sea level 1 ¼ mile – 6600 ft – above sea level 11/4 mile – 7920 ft – above sea level 2 miles – 10560 ft – above sea level

12.7 12.0 11.4

29.2 27.8 26.4 25.1 22.8

18 17 16 15 14

15.9 15.0 14.2 13,3 12.4

©2011 Jurandir Primo

10.9 9.9

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Obs: Multiply barometer in inches by 0.491 to obtain lbs. per sq. in (psi). 23. Density Alternatives and Pressure Relationships = ρ x g, where,

- specific weight = weight per unit volume (N/m 3, lbf/ft3).

Water: = 9790 N/m3 = ~1000 Kg/m³ = 62.4 lbf/ft3 = 1.94 slug/ft3 Air: = 11.8 N/m3 = ~1.2 Kg/m³ = 0.0752 lbf/ft3 = 0.00237 slug/ft3 Density ρ is usually at 4˚C, but some references will use ρ at 20˚C, thus, Specific Gravity is: Water (ρ) = at 1 atm, 4˚C = 1000 kg/m3 - SG = 1000 / 1000 = 1.0 Air (ρ) = at 1 atm, 4˚C = 1.205 kg/m3 - SG = 1.205 / 1000 = ~0.0012 PRESSURE AND EQUIVALENT FEET HEAD OF WATER lb /sq. in. (psi)

Feet Head

lb /sq. in. (psi).

Feet Head

1.0 2.0 3.0

2.31 4.62 6.93

20.0 25.0 30.0

46.28 57.72 69.27

120.0 125.0 130.0

277.07 288.62 300.16

225.0 250.0 275.0

519.51 577.24 643.03

4.0 5.0 6.0

9.24 11.54 13.85

40.0 50.0 60.0

92.36 115.45 138.54

140.0 150.0 160.0

323.25 346.34 369.43

300.0 325.0 350.0

692.69 750.41 808.13

7.0 8.0 9.0

16.16 18.47 20.78

70.0 80.0 90.0

161.63 184.72 207.81

170.0 180.0 190.0

392.52 415.61 438.90

375.0 400.0 500.0

865.89 922.58 1154.48

10.0 15.0

23.09 34.63

100.0 110.0

230.90 253.98

200.0

461.78

1000.0

2310.00

Inches Feet of of Water Mercury

psi

lb /sq. in. Feet Head lb /sq. in. (psi) (psi)

Inches Feet of of Water Mercury

psi

Inches of Mercury

1.0 2.0 3.0

1.13 2.26 3.39

0.49 0.98 1.47

11.0 12.0 13.0

12.44 13.57 14.70

5.39 5.87 6.37

21.0 22.0 23.0

4.0 5.0 6.0

4.52 5.65 6.78

1.95 2.45 2.94

14.0 15.0 16.0

15.83 16.96 18.09

6.85 7.34 7.83

24.0 25.0 26.0

7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

7.91 9.04 10.17 11.31

3.43 3.92 4.40 4.89

17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0

19.22 20.35 21.48 22.61

8.32 8.82 9.30 9.79

27.0 28.0 29.0 29.92

Feet of Water

Feet Head

psi

23.7 5 24.8 8 27,14 26.0 28.27 0 29.40

10.28 10.77 11.26

30.53 31.66 32.79 33.83

13.22 13.71 14.20 14.65

11.75 12.24 12.73

Example 20: Determine the static pressure: 18 cm (0.59 ft) column of fluid with a Specific Gravity of 0.85. P = ρ g h = SG h = 0.85 x 9790 N/m3 x 0.18 m = 1498 N/m2 = 1.5 kPa = 0.015 bar P = ρ g h = SG h = 0.85 x 62.4 lbf/ft3 x 0.59 ft = 31.3 lb/ft2 = 31.3 lb/144 = 0.217 psi. ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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24. Centrifugal Force Theory The equation that describes the relationship of velocity, height and gravity applied to a falling body is: v² = 2 g h Where: v = Velocity of the body, ft/s g = Acceleration due gravity, 32.2 ft/s² h = Distance the body falls, ft The peripheral velocity or, the outside travelling point of a rotating body in one second is: v = π D n / 60 Where: D = Diameter of rotating body or impeller, inches n = Rotation of the rotating body or impeller in minutes, RPM Example 21: What is the velocity of a stone thrown from a building window 100 ft high? v² = 2 g h v² = 2 x 32.2 x 100 = 6440 ft²/s² = v = 80.3 ft/s The same equation applies when pumping water with a centrifugal pump. If we rearrange the falling body equation we get the velocity head - known as dynamic head as a measure of a fluid’s kinetic energy: h = v² / 2g. This relationship is one of fundamental laws of centrifugal pumps. Applying this theory with a practical application, take the example below: Example 22: Installing an 1800 RPM centrifugal pump, what will be the necessary diameter of the impeller to develop a head of 200 ft? v² = 2 g h v² = 2 x 32.2 x 200 = 12880 ft²/s² = 113 ft/s The peripheral velocity is: v = π d n / 60, then: d = 60 v / π n = 60 x 113 / π 1800 = 1.2 ft (14.4 inches) ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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25. Static Head Static head is the difference in height between the source and destination of the pumped liquid (see figure below).

The static head at a certain pressure depends on the weight of the liquid and can be calculated with this equation: Head (in feet) = Pressure (psi) x 2.31 = Specific Gravity 26. Types of Pumps Pumps come in a variety of sizes for a wide range of applications. They can be classified according to the basic operating principle as dynamic or positive displacement pumps, as indicated below:

The centrifugal pumps are generally the most economical followed by the rotary and reciprocating pumps. Although, positive displacement pumps are generally more efficient than centrifugal pumps, the benefit of higher efficiency tends to be offset by increased maintenance costs. ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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27. Affinity Laws for Pumps The pump performance parameters (flow rate, head and power) will change with varying rotating speeds. The equations that explain these relationships are known as the “Affinity Laws”: Flow rate (Q) is proportional to the rotating speed (N) Head (H) is proportional to the square of the rotating speed Power (P) is proportional to the cube of the rotating speed

As can be seen from the above laws, doubling the rotating speed of the centrifugal pump will increase the power consumption by 8 times. This forms the basis for energy conservation in centrifugal pumps with varying flow requirements. 28. Pump Performance Curve The rate of flow at a certain head is called the duty point. The pump performance curve is made up of many duty points. The pump operating point is determined by the intersection of the system curve and the pump curve as shown below:

©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Example 23: A centrifugal pump, at 1750 RPM, has the following performance, Q = 1000 GPM; h = 150 ft.; N = 45 HP. What will the performance of this pump at 2900 RPM? a) b) c)

Q = 1000 x (2900 / 1750) = 1660 GPM h = 150 x (2900 / 1750)² = 411 ft N = 45 x (2900 / 1750)³ = 205 HP

29. Specific Speed The specific speeds of centrifugal pumps range from 500 to 20,000 depending upon the design. Pumps of the same specific speed (Ns), but with different sizes are considered to be geometrically similar, one pump being a size-factor of the other, as indicated in table below: Ns = N x Q0.5 H 0.75 Ns = Specific speed, dimensionless Q = Flow capacity at best efficiency point at maximum impeller diameter, GPM H = Head at maximum impeller diameter, ft N = Pumps speed, RPM Specific Speeds for Centrifugal Pumps

Example 24: Given a centrifugal pump at 3570 RPM, flow capacity 2000 GPM and head of 500 ft, the specific speed is calculated as: Ns = N x Q0.5 = H 0.75 Ns = 3570 x 2000 0.5 = 1510 500 0.75 29. Pump Pressure The pressure rises as flow progresses from the suction to discharge. Pressure is expressed in “psi”, but also can be expressed in feet of water, water gauge, head or static head: Head, h, ft. water, water gauge, = psi x 2.31 / SG, where SG is the Specific Gravity. ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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30. Total Dynamic Head When a pump is installed, the developed pressure as explained above, is also commonly called discharge head at the exit side of the pump and suction head on the inlet side of the pump.

Figure # 1:

Figure # 2:

Total Dynamic Head (TDH) is the total dynamic Total Dynamic Head (TDH) is the total dynamic discharge head minus the total dynamic suction discharge head plus the total dynamic suction head when installed with a suction head. head when installed with a suction lift. The suction head is positive because the liquid The suction head is negative because the liquid level is above the centerline of the pump: level is below the centerline of the pump:

TDH = discharge head - suction head

TDH = discharge head + suction head

TDH = Hd - Hs (with a suction head)

TDH = Hd + Hs (with a suction lift)

The formulae are: The total suction head (Hs) consists of three separate heads: Hs = hss + hps - hfs hss = Suction static head hps = Suction surface pressure head hfs = Suction friction head The total discharge head (Hd) is also made from three separate heads: Hd = hsd + hpd + hfd hsd = Discharge static head hpd = Discharge surface pressure head hfd = Discharge friction head ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Pumping System: Basic installation with negative suction head and main components:

31. Pump Standards Centrifugal pumps can be segmented into groups based on design, application, models and service type. Pumps can belong to several different groups depending on their construction and application. The following examples demonstrate various segments: Industry standards: HI - Hydraulic Institute Standards ANSI Pump - ASME B73.1 Specifications (chemical industry) API Pump - API 610 Specifications (oil & gas industry) DIN Pump - DIN 24256 Specifications (European standard) ISO Pump - ISO 2858, 5199 Specifications (European standard) Nuclear Pump - ASME Specifications UL/FM Fire Pump - NFPA Specifications ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Example 25: Calculate the Total Dynamic Head (TDH) according to Figure # 2, below:

a) The total suction head (Hs) calculations are: 1. The suction head is negative because the liquid level is below the centerline of the pump: hss = - 6 feet 2. The suction surface pressure: the tank is open, so pressure equals atmospheric pressure: hps = 0 feet, gauge 3. Assume the suction friction head as: hfs = 4 feet 4. The total suction head is: Hs = hss + hps - hfs = Hs = - 6 + 0 - 4 = - 10 feet b) The total discharge head (Hd) calculations are: 1. The static discharge head is: hsd = 125 feet 2. The discharge surface pressure: the discharge tank is also open to atmospheric pressure, thus: hpd = 0 feet, gauge 3. Assume the discharge friction head as: hfd = 25 feet 4. The total discharge head is: Hd = hsd + hpd + hfd = Hd = 125 + 0 + 25 = 150 feet ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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The Total Dynamic Head calculation is: TDH = Hd - Hs = TDH = 150 - (- 10) = 160 feet Example 26: Take the following data: 1. Transferring 1000 GPM weak acid from the vacuum receiver to the storage tank; 2. Specific Gravity – SG = 0.98; 3. Viscosity - equal to water; 4. Piping – suction and discharge piping - all 6" Schedule 40 steel pipes; 5. Discharge piping rises 40 feet vertically, plus 400 feet horizontally. Only one 90° flanged elbow. 6. Suction piping has a square edge inlet, 4 feet long, one gate valve and one 90° flanged elbow; 7. The minimum level in the vacuum receiver is 5 feet above the pump centerline. 8. The pressure on top of the liquid in the vacuum receiver is 20 inches of mercury, vacuum.

a)

The total suction head (Hs) calculation is:

1. The suction static head is 5 feet above suction centerline. The suction pipe is 4 ft long. hss = 5 feet 2. To calculate the suction surface pressure use one of the following formulae: Feet of Liquid = Inches of mercury x 1.133 / Specific Gravity Feet of Liquid = Pounds per square inch x 2.31 / Specific Gravity Feet of Liquid = Millimeters of mercury / (22.4 x Specific Gravity) Then, using the first formula, the suction surface pressure is: hps = - 20 Hg x 1.133 / 0.98 = - 23.12 feet water 3. The suction friction head (hfs) equals the sum of all the friction losses in the suction line. Friction loss in 6" pipe, at a flow rate 1000 GPM, considering the Hazen-Williams equation is 12.26 feet per 100 feet of pipe.

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The friction loss for a 6”diameter x 4 ft long pipe is = 4/100 x 12.26 = 0.49 feet. The friction loss coefficients (K factors) for the inlet, elbow and valve can be added together and multiplied by the velocity head. There is no K factor for the square inlet, assume K = 0.45. Fittings

K

From Table

6" – Square edge inlet 0.45 6" - 90º flanged elbow 0.45 6" - Gate valve

Page 14

0.12

Total coefficient, K = 1.02 The total friction loss (hfs) on the suction side is: hfs = 0.49 + 1.02 = 1.51 feet 4. The total suction head (Hs) then becomes: Hs = hss + hps - hfs = Hs = 5 + (- 23.12) – 1.51 = - 19.6 feet b)

The total discharge head (Hd) calculation is:

1. Static discharge head = hsd = 40 feet 2. Discharge surface pressure = hpd = 0 feet gauge 3. Discharge friction head = hfd = sum of the following losses: The friction loss for a 6" pipe at 1000 GPM from table indicated above is: 6.17 feet / 100 feet of pipe. Considering the 440 feet of pipe, the friction loss = 440/100 x 6.17 = 27.2 feet The friction loss for a 6" elbow, K = 0.45 Q = 1000 GPM = ~2.3 ft³/s, and pipe radius = 3” /12 = 0.25 ft The flow velocity, v = Q / A = 2.3 ft³/s / π. 0.25² = 11.36 ft/s From equation, Vh = v2 / 2g = 11.36² / 64.34 = 2.0 ft Friction loss = K x Vh = 0.45 x 2.0 = 0.9 feet The friction loss in the sudden enlargement at the end of the discharge line is called the exit loss. Then the velocity in discharge tank friction loss at exit is: Vh = v2 / 2g = 2.0 feet The discharge friction head (hfd) is the sum of the above losses, that is: hfd = 27.2 + 0.9 + 2.0 = 30.1 feet 4. The total discharge head (Hd) becomes: Hd = hsd + hpd + hfd = 40 + 0 + 30.1 = 70.1 feet ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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The Total Dynamic Head (TDH) calculation:

TDH = Hd - Hs = 70.1 - (- 19.6) = TDH = 89.7 feet. 32. Pump System Power The Brake Horsepower (BHP) is the actual horsepower delivered to the pump shaft, defined as follows: BHP = Q x H x SG / 3960 x Pη Where: Q = Capacity in gallons per minute H = Total Differential Head in absolute feet SG = Specific Gravity of the liquid Pη = Pump efficiency as a percentage The actual or brake horsepower (BHP) of a pump will be greater than the WHP by the amount of losses incurred within the pump through friction, leakage and recirculation, defined as follows: WHP = Q x H x SG / 3960 Where Q = Capacity in gallons per minute H = Total Differential Head in absolute feet SG = Specific Gravity of the liquid Obs.: The constant (3960) is the number of foot-pounds in one horsepower (33,000) divided by the weight of one gallon of water (8.33 pounds). 33. Recommended Flow Velocity: In general - a rule of thumb - is to keep the suction fluid flow speed below the following values: Pipe Diameter inches mm 1 25 2 50 3 75 4 100 6 150 8 200 10 250 12 300

Water m/s 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.75 0.9 1.4

ft/s 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2 2.5 3 4.5

Fluid velocity should not exceed 4 ft/s and, depending on the pipe sizes involved, always select the next larger pipe diameter, that will result in acceptable pipe velocities. ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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The velocity formulae may be: v = Q x 0.4085 / d2

(Imperial Units)

or, v = (Q x 0.321) / A = Where: v = Velocity (ft/s) Q = Volume flow (GPM) d = Pipe inside diameter (inches) Constant = 0.4085 and 0.321 (used to convert GPM into cubic feet and then, velocity in ft/s). v = 1.274 Q / d2

(Metric Units)

v = Velocity (m/s) Q = Volume flow (m 3/s) d = Pipe inside diameter (m) A handy formula for the pump impeller speed is: V=NxD= 229 V = Peripheral impeller velocity, ft/s N = Impeller rotation, RPM D = Impeller diameter Example 27: What is the velocity of flow for a 1" polyethylene sewage pipe, 1.189" ID, with a flow rate of 8 GPM? v = 0.4085 x 8 / (1.189) ² v = 0.4085 x 8 / 1.41 v = 2.3 ft/s Example 28: An inlet pressure gage is installed in a 2 inches pipe directly in front of a pump delivering 100 gpm oil with Specific Gravity SG = 0.9, reading 10 psig. Calculate Velocity Head and Total Suction Pressure. Pipe net Area: A = 3.14 x d² / 4 = 3.14 x 2² / 4 = 3.14 in² Velocity: v = (Q x 0.321) / A = (100 x 0.321) / 3.14 = 10.2 ft/s The Velocity Head is:

©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Vh = v² / 2g = 10.2² / (2 x 32.2) = 1.6 ft., or, Vh = 1.6 x 0.9 / 2.31 = 0.6 psi. The Total Suction Pressure then is: Hs = 10 + 0.6 = 10.6 psi, or, Hs = 10.6 x 2.31 / 0.9 = 27.2 feet of water 34. Capacity Relationship As liquids are essentially incompressible, the capacity is directly related with the velocity of flow in the suction pipe. This relationship is as follows: GPM = 449 * v * A Where v = Velocity of flow, feet per second (fps) A = Area of pipe, ft² 35. Pipe Diameter – Minimum Recommended The recommended suction inlet size (D) may be: D = (0.0744 Q) 0.5 Where: D = Pipe diameter, inches Q = Flow rate in gallons per minute (GPM). Clear fluids: d = 0.73 √ Q / SG = ρ 0.33 Corrosive fluids: d = 1.03 √ Q / SG = ρ 0.33 d = Pipe inner diameter, in Q = Flow rate, GPM SG = Specific Gravity, ρ = Fluid density, lb/ft² 36. Calculating the NPSH The term NPSH means Net Positive Suction Head. The motive to calculate the NPSH of any pump is to avoid the cavitation or corrosion of the parts during the normal process.

©2011 Jurandir Primo

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The main concepts of NPSH to be understood are the the NPSHr (required) and NPSHa (available). The NPSHr can be found in a manufacturing catalog of pumps, a technician or an engineer is choosing to apply in a project or installation. The manufacturer always shows the graphic curves of all line pumps manufactured by the company, indicating the required NPSH for each product. The NPSHa is the normal calculation the technician or the engineer has to perform to find which of pump, from that manufacturing catalog, will better fit in his project or installation. Then, to calculate the available NPSH of a pump is necessary to know the following concepts: a) NPSHa (available) > NPSHr (required). b) Vapor Pressure: The vapor pressure units, commonly given in feet or meters, depend completely from the temperature and the altitude. At 212°F or 100ºC (boiling point of water) the water vapor pressure is 33.9 feet (14.7 psia) or 10.33 m (1.033 kg/cm²). See the basic tables below: Temperature, F°/ C° Vapor Pressure, feet / meters Vapor Pressure, psia / kg/cm²

32 0 0.204 0.062 0.088 0.006

40 5 0.280 0.085 0.122 0.008

50 10 0.410 0.125 0.178 0.012

60 15 0.591 0.180 0,256 0.018

70 21 0.837 0.255 0.363 0.025

122 50 4.126 1.258 1.789 0.123

149 65 8.384 2.555 3.635 0.255

167 75 12.919 3.938 5.601 0.394

212 100 33.9 10.33 14.7 1.033

Altitude at Sea Level, Feet / Meters Pressure, feet / meters Pressure, psia / kg/cm²

0 0 33.9 10.33 14.7 1.033

500 153 33.28 10.15 14.43 1.015

1000 305 32.65 9.56 14.16 0.956

1500 458 32.08 9.78 13.91 0.978

2000 610 31.50 9.60 13.66 0.960

3000 915 30.37 9.26 13.17 0.926

5000 1526 28.20 8.60 12.23 0.860

7000 2136 26.15 7.97 11.34 0.797

10000 3050 23.29 7.10 10.10 0.710

c) Static Head: is positive when liquid line is above pump centerline and negative when liquid line is below pump centerline. Head, feet = psi x 2.31, or, Vapor Pressure (psi) x 2.31 = Sg Sg d) Atmospheric Pressure: when the pump to be installed is according to altitude from sea level (see table above). Pressure, psi = Head x Sg = 2.31 e) Specific Gravity: is the substance density compared to water. The density of water at standard temperature is 1 g/cm3 = 1 g/liter. So, the Specific Gravity (Sg) of water is 1.0. f) Friction Loss: is a measure of the reduction in the total head (sum of elevation head, velocity head and pressure head) of the fluid as it moves through a fluid system. 2

Head Loss, Hf = f L v = D 2g The technician or engineer also needs to know the formulae that show how to convert vacuum readings to feet of head. ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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The main formulae to convert vacuum readings to feet of head are: Feet of Liquid = Inches of mercury x 1.133 / Specific Gravity Feet of Liquid = Pounds per square inch x 2.31 / Specific Gravity Feet of Liquid = Millimeters of mercury / (22.4 x Specific Gravity) The side graphic shows the conditions of each item in a complete NPSH process: 37. Calculation of the NPSH Process As explained above the calculation is for the NPSHa. NPSHa (converted to head) is: NPSHa = + - Static Head + Atmospheric Pressure Head Vapor Pressure – Friction Loss in piping, valves and fittings: NPSHa = +- H + Pa – Pv - Hf H = Static Suction Head (positive or negative), in feet Pa = Atmospheric pressure (psi x 2.31/Sg), in feet Pv = Vapor pressure (psi x 2.31/Sg), in feet. Hf = See tables indicating friction loss. Fittings friction loss is (K x v²/2g), in feet. Example 29: 1) Find the NPSHa from below data: Steel Piping = suction and discharge - 2 inch diameter, total length10 feet, plus 2 x 90° elbow; Cold water pumping, Q =100 gpm @ 68°F; Flow velocity, v = 10 ft/s (maximum); Specific gravity, Sg = 1.0 (clean water). H = Liquid level is above pump centerline = + 5 feet Pa = Atmospheric pressure = 14.7 psi - the tank is at sea level Pv = Water vapor pressure at 68°F = 0.339 psi. According to pump manufacturer the NPSHr (required), as per the pump curve) = 24 feet. Using the above formula: NPSHa = +- H + Pa – Pv – Hf H - Static head = +5 feet Pa - Atmospheric pressure = psi x 2.31/Sg. = 14.7 x 2.31/1.0 = +34 feet absolute Pv – Water vapor pressure at 68°F = psi x 2.31/Sg = 0.339 x 2.31/1.0 = 0.78 feet Hf - 100 gpm - through 2 inches pipe shows a loss of 36.1 feet for each 100 feet of pipe, then: ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Piping friction loss = Hf1 = 10 ft / 100 x 36.1 = 3.61 feet Fittings friction loss = Hf2 = K x v²/2g = 0.57 x 10² (x 2) = 1.77 2 x 32.17 Total friction loss for piping and fittings = Hf = (Hf1 + Hf2) = 3.61 + 1.77 = 5.38 feet. NPSHa (available) = +- H + Pa – Pv – Hf = NPSHa (available) = + 5 + 34 - 0.78 – 5.38 = NPSHa (available) = 32.34 feet (NPSHa) > 24 feet (NPSHr), so, the system has plenty to spare. Example 30: 2) Using the same data above, find the NPSHa in metric numbers: Steel Piping = suction and discharge - 2 inch diameter, total length 3.0 m, plus 2 x 90° screwed elbow; Cold water pumping– 100 gpm = 0.379 m³/min (22.7 m³/h) at 20º C (68º F); Flow velocity for a 2 inches piping – 10 ft/s = ~3.0 m/s H = Liquid level above pump centerline = +1.5 m Pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.033 kg/cm² = at sea level Pv = Vapor pressure at 20º C = 0.024 kg/cm² Sg – Specific gravity = 1.0 (1000 kg/m³) According to pump manufacturer the NPSHr (required), as per the pump curve) = 7.32 m 1) Converting Pa =1.033 kg/cm² in kg/m² we have - 1.033 kg/cm² x 10,000 = 10330 kg/m² Pa = Water density 1000 kg/m³, then – 10330 kg/m² = 10.33 m of water column (WC); 1000 kg/m³ 2) Converting Pv = 0.024 kg/cm² in kg/m² we have – 0.024 kg/cm² x 10,000 = 240 kg/m² Pv = Water density 1000 kg/m³, then – 240 kg/m² = 0.24 m of water column (WC); 1000 kg/m³ 3) Total Friction Loss, Hf: Piping 2 inches, total length = ……………………………….3.0 m Equivalent length - 2 inches elbows = 1.1 m (x 2) = ………2.2 m Total equivalent length = ………………………………………………5.2 m a) According to the metric tables: for a flow rate 22.7 m³/h (100 gpm) using piping diameter 2 inches (0.05 m) and length of 100.0 m, the total friction loss is = ~25% Hf = 5.2 x 25/100 = 1.30 m b)

Using the Darcy - Weisbach formula:

Hf = f. L. v² = Di. 2 g ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Where: f = Friction = 0.019 (see table in page 15) Di = Pipe internal diameter = 0.052 m, L = Piping length = 5.2 m, v = Velocity rate = 3.2 m/s, g = Velocity due gravity = 9.8 m/s² Hf = 0.019. 5.2 x 3.2² = ~1.0 0.052 x 2 x 9.8 The calculated product, Hf = 1.0 will be used in this example: Then: NPSHa = +-H + Pa – Pv – hf NPSHa = +1.5 + 10.33 – 0.24 – 1.0 = 9.69 m (NPSHa) > 7.32 m (NPSHr). Example 31: 3) Compute the NPSHa, according to the following data below: Water flow rate = 100 GPM Piping = 4 inches diameter Static Suction Lift Length= 15 ft + 2 ft (foot valve) + 1 elbow 90º + 1 elbow 45º; Water Vapor Pressure at 74° = 0.441 Atmospheric pressure - corrected = 6 ft Consider a safety factor for atmospheric pressure = 2,0 ft Consider a friction loss correction = 0.71 NPSHr – according to performance pump curves catalog = 5,0 ft a)

Calculate the Total Dynamic Suction Lift: A B

C

STATIC SUCTION LIFT (Length =) Suction Piping, Friction: a) Pipe diameter, 4” Pipe total length + Foot valve = b) One elbow 90º, diameter, 4” = 6 ft c) One elbow 45º, diameter, 4” = 4 ft Fittings total length = Total equivalent length =

15 ft

17 ft

10 ft 27 ft

d) Pipe friction loss (see tables) = 4.43 ft e) Friction loss = 27’/100 x 4.43 = ~1.20 ft f) Correction factor = 0.71 Total Friction Loss = 1.20 x 0.71 =

0.85 ft

Total Dynamic Suction Lift =

15.85 ft

The sketch below shows the calculated above data: ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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b)

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How to calculate the NPSHa: D

Atmospheric pressure at sea level ………………..=

33.90'

E

Atmospheric pressure - corrected ………………...=

- 6.00’

F

Atmospheric pressure available at job site…………………. = 27.90' Deductions from available atmospheric pressure:

G

1. Total dynamic suction lift……………………… = 15.85' 2. Vapor pressure 74° (0.441 x 2.31 / 1.0) = 1.00' 3. Safety factor (for atmospheric pressure)…….. = 2,00’ H I

Net deductions from available atmospheric pressure…….. = 18.85’ NPSHa, F - H =

J L

NPSHr - according to pump catalog = NPSH excess available, or excess pressure………………….. =

©2011 Jurandir Primo

atmospheric,

I

-

+ 9.05’ - 5.00’ = 4.05’

J

-18,85

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38. Cavitation Cavitation is associated with head loss, as relationship between NPSHr and Total Dynamic Head. In 1920 the German engineer Dieter Thoma described a parameter known as the Thoma´s cavitation factor. σ = (Pa – Pv – Hs) / H = (Thoma´s Formula) Where: σ = Thoma´s number Pa = Atmospheric pressure (at sea level = 33.90 ft) Pv = Vapor pressure (ft) Hs = Suction head (ft) H = Total dynamic head (ft) Specific speed (Ns) and suction specific speed(S) are terms that are no longer limited to the interest of pump designers. The equation for specific speed is: Ns = n x √ Q = H 0.75 Suction specific speed is an indicator of impeller inlet geometry. s=nx√Q= NPSHr 0.75 In Imperial system, when the NPSHr from a pump manufacturer is not available, since experience has shown that s = 9000 is a reasonable value of suction specific speed; it can be estimated by the following equation: 9000 = n x √ Q = NPSHr 0.75 The common calculation to find the NPSHa should be 50% bigger than the NPSHr. Example 32: Given data: Pump flow 2,000 GPM; head 600 ft. What NPSHa will be required? Considering that with a head of 600 ft., 3500 RPM operation will be required, then: 9000 = 3500 x √ 2000 = NPSHr 0.75 NPSHr 0.75 = 3500 x √ 2000 = 9000 NPSHr = 17.4 1.333 NPSHr = 45 ft Thus, the NPSHa will become: NPSHa = 45 x 1.5 (factor) = 67.5 ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Example 33: Calculate the specific speed (Ns) of a centrifugal pump with 1750 RPM, a flow 0.045 m³/s and total dynamic head of 45.61 m. Consider Pa = 9.5 m, Pv = 0.235 m, Hs = 2.40 m. Q = 0.045 x 1000 x 60s / 3.78 liters = 714 GPM H = 45.61m / 0.305 m = ~150 ft Ns = n x Q 0,5 / H 0,75 = Ns = 1750 x 714 0,5 / 150 0,75 = 1090 Thoma´s formula: σ = (Pa – Pv – Hs) / H = σ = (9.5 – 0.235 – 2.40) / 45.61 = 0.15 The Thoma´s number (0.15) and the specific speed Ns (1090) in figure below shows the calculation enters in a safe region. Then, there will be no cavitation.

In Metric system, when the NPSHr from a pump manufacturer is not available, it can be estimated by the following equation: NPSHr = φ x n 4/3 x Q 2/3 = Where: ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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φ = 0.0011 for centrifugal pumps n = Impeller rotation (RPM) H = Suction head, ft (m) Q = Flow rate, CFS (m³/s) Example 34: Estimate the NPSHr: centrifugal pump flow rate = 50 m³/h (0.0139 m³/s); Impeller rotation = 3000 RPM NPSHr = 0.0011 x 3000 4/3 x 0.0139 2/3 = NPSHr = 0.0011 x 43152 x 0.058 = 2.75 m Example 35: Given the data: pump with 1750 RPM e flow rate 0.045 m³/s. Estimate the NPSHr. NPSHr = 0.0012 x n 4/3 x Q 2/3 = NPSHr = 0.0012 x 1750 4/3 x 0,045 2/3 = 0.0012 x 21088 x 0.1265 = 3.2 m 39. Elevation Equivalent Pressure Relationship Static Head – The hydraulic pressure at a point in a fluid when the liquid is at rest. Friction Head – The loss in pressure or energy due to frictional losses in flow. Velocity Head – The energy in a fluid due to its velocity, expressed as a head unit. Pressure Head – A pressure measured in equivalent head units. Discharge Head – The outlet pressure of a pump in operation. Total Head – The total pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of a pump in operation. Suction Head – The inlet pressure of a pump when above atmospheric. Suction Lift – The inlet pressure of a pump when below the atmospheric. These terms are sometimes used to express different conditions in a pumping system, and can be given dimensions of either pressure units (PSI) or head units (feet). 40. Centrifugal Pump Parts

©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Practical Example 36:

The sketch above is a clean water pumping system to be sized in order to feed a reservoir. Given the data: Static suction head is negative, hss = - 6 feet; Suction piping length: 10 ft; Static discharge head, hsd = 125 feet; Discharge piping length: 9800 ft; Flow rate: 480 GPM; Galvanized steel piping, C = 100; Elevation = 3000 ft (915 m) - atmospheric pressure, Pa = 13.17 psi; 30.37 ft (table page 39); Water temperature = 77 °F (25 °C) – vapor pressure, Pv = 0.46 psi; 1.06 ft (table page 24). 1)

Minimum recommended suction diameter calculation:

D = (0.0744 Q) 0.5 = D = (0.0744 x 480) 0.5 = D = 6 inches – ID 6.07 inches - Sch. 40 steel piping. 2)

Flow rate velocity evaluation:

v = Q x 0.4085 / d2 v = 480 x 0.4085 / 6.07² = 5.3 ft/s ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Suction fluid velocity should not exceed 4 ft/s then, the next larger pipe diameter that will result in acceptable pipe velocities, thus: 3)

Suction and discharge piping diameter & velocity:

D = 8 inches – ID 7.98 inches – 0.665 ft - Sch. 40 steel piping v = 480 x 0.4085 / 7.98² = 3.0 ft/s – this flow velocity is adequate. 4)

Suction piping friction loss:

a)

Darcy-Weisbach equation associated with piping length: 2

Hf = f. L v = 0.014 x 10 x 3.0² = D 2g 0.66 x 64.34

0.029 ft

Where: f = Friction factor (8 inches pipe) = 0.014 (Table page 15) L = Suction piping length = 10 ft D = Internal diameter of pipe = 7.98 in = 7.98 / 12 = 0.66 ft v = Velocity of fluid = 3.0 ft/s g = Acceleration due gravity = 32.17 ft/s² The coefficient “K” of fittings to be used according to tables:

b)

Hf = v² = 3.0 ² = 0.14 2g 64.34 1 foot valve 8” with Strainer Hinged Disc - (K = 1.10) = 1.10 x 0.14 = 0.154 ft 1 elbow 8”, 90° - (K = 0.42) = 0.42 x 0.14 = 0.056 ft 1 reduction 8” x 6” – (K = 0.34) = 0.34 x 0.14 = 0.047 ft Hf (suction) = 0.029 + 0.154 + 0.056 + 0.047 = 0.29 ft 5)

Discharge piping friction loss:

a)

Darcy-Weisbach with piping length: 2

Hf = f. L v = 0.014 x 9800 x 3.0² = 29.0 ft D 2g 0.66 x 64.34 b)

The coefficient “K” according to tables:

Hf = v² = 3.0 ² = 0.14 2g 64.34 1 reduction 8” x 6” – (K = 0.34) = 0.34 x 0.14 = 0.047 ft 1 swing check valve 8” – (K = 1.40) = 1.40 x 0.14 = 0.196 ft 1 gate valve 8” – (K = 0.11) = 0.11 x 0.14 = 0.015 ft 1 elbow 8”, 90° - (K = 0.42) = 0.42 x 0.14 = 0.056 ft Hf (discharge) = 29 + 0.047 + 0.196 + 0.015 + 0.056 = 29.32 ft ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Obs.: When the Hazen-Williams are preferred, the equation is as indicated below: Hf = 0.2083 (100 / C)1.85 x Q1.85 = D4.8655 Where: f = Friction head loss in feet of water (per 100 ft of pipe); C = Hazen-Williams roughness constant; Q = Volume flow (gpm); D = Inside pipe diameter (inches); L = Length of pipe, (in. or m). The link http://docs.engineeringtoolbox.com/documents/797/hazen-williams-equation.xls shows an excel spreadsheet using the Hazen – William equations as indicated below: Specification – Suction Piping Friction Loss L = length of pipe (ft) C = Hazen-Williams roughness constant Q = volume flow (gal/min) Dh = inside or hydraulic diameter (inches)

Data 10 100 480 8

Calculated Pressure Loss Head loss - ft of water Head loss - psi

Results 0,08 0,03

Calculated Flow Velocity v = flow velocity (ft/s)

3,07

Specification - Discharge Piping Friction Loss L = length of pipe (ft) C = Hazen-Williams roughness constant Q = volume flow (gal/min) Dh = inside or hydraulic diameter (inches)

Data 9800 100 480 8

Calculated Pressure Loss Head loss - ft of water Head loss - psi

Results 76,14 32,74

Calculated Flow Velocity v = flow velocity (ft/s)

3,07

1. The Darcy-Weisbach calculation resulted in 0.029 ft for suction piping and 29.0 ft for discharge piping respectively. The above online friction loss resulted in 0.04 ft and 37.36 ft respectively. 2. However, as can be seen in the figures above, the online calculation uses the parameters of the Moody Chart. Thus, surely is much more efficient. 3. As can be noticed the piping head loss calculation is empirical and many times, trial and error. Using the acceptable results of the link “light my pump” (http://www.pumpfundamentals.com) the piping fric-tion loss becomes: Hf (suction) = 0.04 + 0.154 + 0.056 + 0.047 = ~0.3 ft Hf (discharge) = 37.36 + 0.047 + 0.196 + 0.015 + 0.056 = ~37.7 ft ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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6)

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Total Dynamic Head (TDH) calculation:

a) Suction head (Hs): 1. The suction head is negative, hss = - 6 feet; 2. The suction surface pressure, hps = 0 feet, gauge (tank is open, equals atmospheric pressure); 3. The suction friction head is, hfs = 0.3 feet; 4. The total suction head is, (Hs = hss + hps – hfs) then, Hs = -6 + 0 – 0.30 = - 6.3 feet b) Discharge head (Hd): 1. The static discharge head is, hsd = 125 feet 2. The suction surface pressure, hpd = 0 feet, gauge (tank is open, equals atmospheric pressure); 3. The discharge friction head is, hfd = 37.7 feet 4. The total discharge head is, (Hd = hsd + hpd + hfd) then, Hd = 125 + 0 + 37.7 = 162.7 feet The Total Dynamic Head (TDH) is, (TDH = Hd – Hs) then, TDH = 162.7 - (- 6.3) = 169.0 feet 7)

Brake Horsepower (BHP) calculation:

BHP = Q x H x SG = 480 x 169 x 1.0 = 27 HP 3960 x Pη 3960 x 0.75 Consider, BHP = 30 HP Q = Capacity, 480 GPM H = Total Differential Head, 169 ft SG = Specific gravity, 1.0 Pη = Pump efficiency, assume 75%. 8)

NPSHa calculation:

H - Static head = - 6 feet; Pa - Elevation = 3000 ft (915 m) - atmospheric pressure, Pa = 13.17 psi; 30.37 ft (table page 39); Pv - Water temperature = 77 °F (25 °C) – vapor pressure, Pv = 0.46 psi; 1.06 ft (table page 24); Hf (suction) = 0.3 ft NPSHa (available) = +- H + Pa – Pv – Hf = NPSHa (available) = - 6 + 30.37 – 1.06 – 0.3 = 23.0 ft 9)

The NPSHr is not known, it can be estimate:

9000 = n x √ Q = NPSHr 0.75

©2011 Jurandir Primo

3500 x √ 480 = NPSHr 0.75

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NPSHr 0.75 = 3500 x √ 480 = 9000 NPSHr = 8.5 1.333 = 17.0 ft NPSHa (available) = 23.0 feet (NPSHa) > 17 feet (NPSHr). The system is acceptable. 10)

Check about cavitation. Assume a centrifugal pump with 1750 RPM:

Ns = n x Q 0,5 / H 0,75 = Ns = 1750 x 480 0,5 / 169 0,75 = ~820 Thoma´s formula: σ = (Pa – Pv – Hs) / H = σ = 30.37 – 1.06 – (- 6.3) / 169 = ~0.20 The Thoma´s number (0.20) and the specific speed Ns (820) in the graphic (page 45) shows the calculation enters in a safe region. Then, there will be no cavitation. Notes: a) The Hazen-Williams formula gives accurate head loss due to friction for fluids with kinematic viscosity of approximately 1.1 cSt and cold water at 60 °F (15.6 °C). b) The Hazen Williams method is valid for water flowing at ordinary temperatures between 40 to 75 °F and the Darcy Weisbach method should be used for other liquids or gases. See below the downloaded Hazen-Williams-equation in xls: http://docs.engineeringtoolbox.com/documents/797/hazen-williams-equation.xls - Give a right click and choose “open hyperlink”.

Hazen-Williams Equation for Pressure Loss in Pipes Imperial Units Specified Data l = length of pipe (ft)

200

c = Hazen-Williams roughness constant

140

q = volume flow (gal/min)

200

dh = inside or hydraulic diameter (inches)

3

Calculated Pressure Loss f = friction head loss in feet of water per 100 feet of pipe (ft H20 per 100 ft pipe)

9,73

f = friction head loss in psi of water per 100 feet of pipe (psi per 100 ft pipe)

4,18

Head loss (ft H20) ©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Head loss (psi)

www.PDHonline.org 8,37

Calculated Flow Velocity v = flow velocity (ft/s)

9,08

SI Units Specified Data l = length of pipe (m) c = Hazen-Williams roughness constant

30 140

q = volume flow (liter/sec)

10

dh = inside or hydraulic diameter (mm)

76

Calculated Pressure Loss f = friction head loss in mm of water per 100 m of pipe (mm H20 per 100 m pipe) f = friction head loss in kPa per 100 m of pipe (kPa per 100 m pipe) Head loss (mm H20) Head loss (kPa)

6406,62 62,85 1921,99 18,85

Calculated Flow Velocity v = flow velocity (m/s)

2,20

Centrifugal Pumps Standards: ANSI/API 610-1995: Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service. DIN EN ISO 5199: Technical Specifications for Centrifugal Pumps. ASME B73.1 - 2001: Specification for Horizontal End Suction Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Process. ASME B73.2 - 2003: Specifications for Vertical In-Line Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Process. BS 5257 – 1975: Specification for Horizontal End-Suction Centrifugal Pumps (16 bar). References: Centrifugal Pumps- University of Sao Paulo, Engineering Lab Fluid Mechanics – Munson, Young, Okiishi, 4th Edition, 2004 Hydraulics – Horace W. King, 4th Edition, 1945 Links: http://www.tasonline.co.za/toolbox/pipe/veldyn.htm http://docs.engineeringtoolbox.com/documents/797/hazen-williams-equation.xls - (download) http://www.lightmypump.com http://www.mcnallyinstitute.com/

©2011 Jurandir Primo

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Centrifugal Pumps & Fluid Flow - PDH Online

PDHonline Course M388 (3 PDH) ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Centrifugal Pumps & Fluid ...

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