Centrifugal Pump Selection and Sizing - Calgary Pump Symposium

Loading...

Centrifugal Pump Selection and Sizing

2009 Calgary Pump Symposium Chris Gilmour, P.Eng.

Pump types being Considered •

One and two stage centrifugal pumps -



OH2, OH3/4, BB1, BB2 most common pumps used

Pumps not considered in this presentation: -

OH5 close-coupled VIL OH6 high-speed integral gear VIL vertically-suspended pumps multi-stage centrifugal pumps low-flow pumps (Ns < 500) 2

Pump types – Vertical In-line Pump

3

Pump types – Horizontal Overhung

4

Pump types – Between-Bearing Pump (radially split)

5

Pump types – Between-Bearing Pump (axially split)

6

Pump Selection – Old School

7

Pump Selection

8

The Goal •

We want to select and purchase pumps that are: Reliable - Reasonably priced - Efficient -

9

What type of plant? •

Class of Plant Class 1 : low first cost, lower on-stream factor - Class 2: a Class 1 plant with selective upgrades - Class 3: higher first cost, higher on-stream factor -



Construction (wrt pumps) -

Modularized or not modularized

10

Pump Selection – order of preference • • •

1. Vertical inline pump 2. Horizontal Overhung Pump 3. Between Bearing Pump

11

Pump Selection •

The smallest, least expensive, most efficient pump is an overhung pump (vertical inline, or horizontal overhung) running at 3600 rpm -

higher speed = smaller diameter for same head higher speed = higher Ns = higher efficiency smaller diameter = smaller casing size = less $

12

Relative Costs – example 1 •

200 m3/h @ 150 m w/ >7m NPSHa (880 gpm @490 ft w/ > 23 ft NPSHa) -

150 HP motor, single seal

Pum size rpm eff rel $ + Install $ p OH3 4x6x13 3600 78% 1.00 base support OH2 4x6x13 3600 78% 1.35 + fdn, grouting BB2

4x6x13 3600 70% 2.30 +fdn, grouting 13

Relative Costs – example 2 •

200 m3/h @ 150 m w/ 4m NPSHa (880 gpm @490 ft w/ 13 ft NPSHa) -

150 HP motor, single seal

Pum size rpm eff rel $ + Install $ p OH3 6x8x23 1800 66% 1.00 base support OH2 6x8x23 1800 66% 1.07 + fdn, grouting BB2

4x6x13 3600 70% 1.04 +fdn, grouting 14

Relative Costs – example 3 •

200 m3/h @ 150 m w/ 4m NPSHa (880 gpm @490 ft w/ 13 ft NPSHa) -

150 HP motor, dual seal w/ Plan 53a

Pum size rpm eff rel $ + Install $ p OH3 6x8x23 1800 66% 1.00 base support OH2 6x8x23 1800 66% 1.06 + fdn, grouting BB2

4x6x13 3600 70% 1.33 +fdn, grouting 15

Why not always buy a 3600 rpm O/H pump? • • •

An O/H pump is not always available in the size required An O/H pump is not always an appropriate selection 3600 rpm may not be an appropriate speed for the process conditions

16

Overhung Pumps – Typical Coverage Pump Size (Dis x Suc) 1-1/2x3 2x3 3x4 4x6 6x8 8x10 10x12 12x16 16x20 * 20x24 *

Impeller Diameter (inches) 7 2 2 2 2

9

11

13

2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4

2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4

2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4

3600 rpm (2-pole) 1800 rpm (4-pole) 1200 rpm (6-pole)

15

2,4 2,4 2,4 4

17

20

23

27

4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6

4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6

4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6

4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6

30 *

6 6 6

* OH2 only 17

Overhung Pumps – Typical Limits •

Tip Speed -

u = RPM/60 x PI x Diameter , units – m/s, m

-

Issue is vibration Typical limit is 62 m/s (205 ft/s) for Class 3 plant - 13” diameter impeller at 3550 rpm - 27” diameter impeller at 1750 rpm Consider increasing for Class 1 plant

-

-

18

VIL Pumps – Typical Limits •

Tip Speed: issue is vibration -



Typical limit is 62 m/s (205 ft/s) for Class 3 plant - 13” diameter impeller at 3550 rpm - 27” diameter impeller at 1750 rpm

Power: issue is vibration, reliability -



Typical limits for Class 3 plant are: - 200HP at 3600 rpm - 400HP at 1800 rpm - 600HP at 1200 rpm

Process Fluid Temperature: issues are shaft sealing, bearing cooling, and motor cooling -

Typical upper limit is 200 C (400F) for Class 3 plant 19

VIL Pumps: Bearing-bracket (OH3) type – Other considerations •

How to lubricate the bearing bracket? -

best is oil mist, if available using oil in a vertical bearing bracket hasn’t always worked well, depends on the arrangement grease is an option for cooler services, but requires regular monitoring

20

VIL Pumps: Rigidly-coupled (OH4) type – Other considerations •

Fluid-lubricated radial bearing -



Motor shaft runout -



need to consider the cleanliness and lubricating properties of the fluid

requires tight tolerance on motor shaft runout

Reliability / seal life ? some companies have had poor seal MTBR with these pumps - Shell Canada experience has been reasonably good -

21

Pump Sizing

22

Specific Speed (Ns) a ‘dimensionless’ parameter describing geometric similarity - evaluated at BEP, maximum diameter - Ns = rpm x gpm^0.5 / ft^0.75 , use ½ Q for double suction - useful for sizing/selecting pumps -

23

24

Specific Speed - Guidelines typical process pumps have Ns between 500 and 1,800 - limited choices of supplier below 500 - pumps with Ns 1,800 – 2,400 are less desirable (reduced range of acceptable operation) - Pumps with Ns > 2,400 should be avoided -

25

Suction Specific Speed (Nss) -

-

a ‘dimensionless’ parameter describing impeller eye geometry evaluated at BEP, max diameter Nss = rpm x gpm^0.5 / NPSHr^0.75 , use ½ Q for double suction impeller consider this example: 500 gpm pump at 3550 rpm - Nss = 9,000 when NPSHr = 18.2 ft - Nss = 11,000 when NPSHr = 13.9 ft - Nss = 13,000 when NPSHr = 11.2 ft for the same pump, lower NPSHr achieved by one or more of: - sharpening the impeller inlet edges - increasing the impeller inlet area by: decreasing # of blades; and /or, increasing blade inlet angle; and /or, increasing inlet area 26

Suction Specific Speed (Nss) - Guidelines

-

typical range is 7,000 to 16,000 (and higher) higher Nss results in restricted range of acceptable operation for pumps with Ns 500 –1800, max Nss up to 11,000 is acceptable for pumps with Ns 1,800 – 2,400, max acceptable Nss should be reduced to about 9,000 pumps with Ns above 2,400 should be avoided

27

Minimum Flow •

Minimum flow issues: -



temperature rise internal recirculation increased flow separation increased pressure fluctuation increased vibration levels (both radial and axial)

Avoiding these issues -

method from WH Fraser (ref: “Flow Recirculation in Centrifugal Pumps”, 1981 Texas A&M Turbomachinery Symposium), ensure pump selection has acceptable range (ie. operation at flows above onset of recirculation)

28

Minimum Flow - Guidelines Recirculation (% of QBEP)

WH Fraser, "Flow Recirculation in Centrifugal Pumps" Ns 500-2500 100.0 90.0 Multi-stage

80.0

Double-Suction 70.0

Single-Suction

60.0 50.0 6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

16000

18000

Nss (US customary units, at BEP)

• •

for Q<2500 gpm and Hd<150 ft, use 50% of curve for continuous and 25% for intermittent operation for HC service, use 60 % for continuous and 25% for intermittent operation 29

Limited Range at Higher Nss

S u c ti o n S p e c i fi c S p e e d (rp m , g p m , ft)

Minimum Flow (single-suction impeller) 14000 13000 12000 11000 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000

Non-HC HC

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Q - % of BEP

30

Other Considerations •

Nozzle Velocities – typical limits -



suction < 20 ft/s discharge < 40 ft/s

Q-rated & Q-normal relative to BEP -

typically Q-rated = Q-normal x 1.1, but sometimes (eg. reflux service) Q-rated = Q-normal x 1.25 best is to straddle BEP with Q-normal and Q-rated, especially if Q-rated >> Q-normal - need to consider: NPSHa, min flow 31

1232

H e a d (ft)

739

1760

4

739 0

500

1232

1000

1500

1760 2000

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2500

Full Diameter 95% Head N P S H r (ft)

500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

BEP Q-min (non-HC) Q-min (HC) Qr=1.1xQn Qr=1.25xQn NPSHr

Flow (gpm) 32

Lets Size some pumps!

33

Equations & Correlations • • • •

Head, H = 2.31 x dP / SG , (ft, psi) Sp Speed, Ns = N x Q^1/2 / H^3/4 , (rpm, gpm, ft) Suc Sp Speed, Nss = N x Q^1/2 / NPSHr^3/4 , (rpm, gpm, ft) Head Coefficient, HC = H / (u^2 / 2g) , (ft, ft/s, ft/s^2) -

• • • •

methodology in “The Pump Handbook”,

Tip Speed, u = (H x 2g / HC)^0.5 , (ft/s, ft, ft/s^2) Diameter, D = u x 12 / PI / (RPM/60) , (in, ft/s, rpm) Power, P = H x Q x SG / (3960 x n) , (hp, ft, gpm) From Curves: efficiency, expected nozzle size, min flow 34

Estimating the Head Coefficient •

using the correlations in “The Pump Handbook”, 2nd edition, Karassik, et al, Ch 2.1 Head Coefficient vs Specific Speed

Head Coefficient

1.40 1600 m3/h 800 m3/h

1.20

400 m3/h 200 m3/h 1.00

100 m3/h 50 m3/h

0.80 0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Ns (rpm, gpm, ft) 35

Required Information •

Require this info as a minimum: -



flow, Q head, H NPSHa (or to know that it is ample)

Also desirable to know: -

SG (to calculate power; assume = 1 if not provided) viscosity (to check if viscous corrections are reqd) HC or non-HC (for minimum flow calculation) continuous or intermittent service (for min flow calc) 36

Worked Example: H= 170 ft, Q= 2000 gpm, NPSHa= 20 ft, water rpm

1780

3550

3550 / dbl

Ns (=RPM x gpm^0.5 / ft^3/4)

1,876

3,742

2,646

< 9,000

17,800

12,586

Nss (=RPM x gpm^0.5/NPSH^3/4) efficiency, from curve

0.84

0.83

Head Coeff, from curve

0.93

0.83

Tip Spd, fps, = (H x 2g /HC)^0.5

108.2

114.6

Dia, in, = u x 12 / PI / (RPM/60)

13.9

15.7

HP = H x Q x SG / (3960 x n)

102

103

Min Nozzle (suc 20 fps, dis 40 fps)

6x8

6x8

Min Flow (non-HC, continuous op)

58%

88% 37

Typical Casing Sizes Q (GPM) 0 100 200 300 500 700 1000 1500 2000 2500 3500 4500 5500 7000 10000

Pump Speed 1160 1780 3x4 2x3 3x4 2x3 4x6 3x4 4x6 3x4 4x6 4x6 6x6 6x6 6x8 6x6 8x8 6x8 8x8 8 x 10 8 x 10 8 x 10 10 x 12 10 x 12 12 x 14 10 x 12 14 x 16 12 x 14 16 x 20 12 x 14 16 x 20 14 x 16

3550 1.5 x 2 1.5 x 2 2x3 3x4 4x6 4x6 6x6 6x6 6x8 8 x 10

38

Overhung Pumps – Typical Coverage Pump Size (Dis x Suc) 1-1/2x3 2x3 3x4 4x6 6x8 8x10 10x12 12x16 16x20 * 20x24 *

Impeller Diameter (inches) 7 2 2 2 2

9

11

13

2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4

2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4

2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4

3600 rpm (2-pole) 1800 rpm (4-pole) 1200 rpm (6-pole)

15

2,4 2,4 2,4 4

17

20

23

27

4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6

4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6

4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6

4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6

30 *

6 6 6

* OH2 only 39

40

Worked Example: H= 500 ft, Q= 4500 gpm, NPSHa= 20 ft, hydrocarbon rpm

1160

1780

1780 / dbl

Ns (=RPM x gpm^0.5 / ft^3/4)

736

1,129

799

< 9,000

12,622

< 9,000

efficiency, from curve

0.77

0.84

0.77

Head Coeff, from curve

1.09

1.04

1.09

Tip Spd, fps, = (H x 2g /HC)^0.5

171.5

175.8

171.7

Dia, in, = u x 12 / PI / (RPM/60)

33.9

22.6

22.1

HP = H x Q x SG / (3960 x n)

741

677

742

Min Nozzle (suc 20 fps, dis 40 fps)

8 x 10

8 x 10

8 x 10

Min Flow (non-HC, continuous op)

35%

49%

40%

Nss (=RPM x gpm^0.5/NPSH^3/4)

41

Typical Casing Sizes Q (GPM) 0 100 200 300 500 700 1000 1500 2000 2500 3500 4500 5500 7000 10000

Pump Speed 1160 1780 3x4 2x3 3x4 2x3 4x6 3x4 4x6 3x4 4x6 4x6 6x6 6x6 6x8 6x6 8x8 6x8 8x8 8 x 10 8 x 10 8 x 10 10 x 12 10 x 12 12 x 14 10 x 12 14 x 16 12 x 14 16 x 20 12 x 14 16 x 20 14 x 16

3550 1.5 x 2 1.5 x 2 2x3 3x4 4x6 4x6 6x6 6x6 6x8 8 x 10

42

Overhung Pumps – Typical Coverage Pump Size (Dis x Suc) 1-1/2x3 2x3 3x4 4x6 6x8 8x10 10x12 12x16 16x20 * 20x24 *

Impeller Diameter (inches) 7 2 2 2 2

9

11

13

2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4

2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4

2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4

3600 rpm (2-pole) 1800 rpm (4-pole) 1200 rpm (6-pole)

15

2,4 2,4 2,4 4

17

20

23

27

4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6

4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6

4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6

4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6 4,6

30 *

6 6 6

* OH2 only 43

44

Worked Example: H= 380 ft, Q= 1750 gpm, NPSHa= 8 ft, hydrocarbon rpm

1160

1780

1780 / dbl

Ns (=RPM x gpm^0.5 / ft^3/4)

564

865

612

< 10,168

15,602

< 11,032

Nss (=RPM x gpm^0.5/NPSH^3/4) efficiency, from curve

0.70

0.70

Head Coeff, from curve

1.0

1.02

Tip Spd, fps, = (H x 2g /HC)^0.5

156.4

155.0

Dia, in, = u x 12 / PI / (RPM/60)

30.9

20

HP = H x Q x SG / (3960 x n)

240

217

Min Nozzle (suc 20 fps, dis 40 fps)

6x6

6x6

Min Flow (non-HC, continuous op)

39%

49% 45

Worked Example: H= 380 ft, Q= 1750 gpm, NPSHa= 13 ft, hydrocarbon rpm

1160

1780

1780 / dbl

Ns (=RPM x gpm^0.5 / ft^3/4)

564

865

612

< 9,000

10,905

< 9,000

efficiency, from curve

0.70

0.77

0.70

Head Coeff, from curve

1.0

1.05

1.02

Tip Spd, fps, = (H x 2g /HC)^0.5

156.4

152.4

155.0

Dia, in, = u x 12 / PI / (RPM/60)

30.9

19.6

20

HP = H x Q x SG / (3960 x n)

240

217

217

Min Nozzle (suc 20 fps, dis 40 fps)

6x6

6x6

6x6

Min Flow (non-HC, continuous op)

39%

42%

49%

Nss (=RPM x gpm^0.5/NPSH^3/4)

46

47

Sizing Spreadsheet •

Arrange the calculations in a spreadsheet -

-

enter: Q, H, NPSHa, SG, viscosity calculate all parameters for typical speeds (1150, 1750, 3550 rpm), and for single or double suction impellers - Ns, Nss, expected efficiency, diameter, expected nozzle sizes, power if ambitious, could also calculate: minimum flow, suction energy, viscosity corrections, motor sizes, etc 48

Buying Pumps Marrying the Hydraulic Selections with the Pump Standards

49

Pump Standards (North American) • •



API 610 – for heavy duty pumps ASME/ANSI B73.1 and B73.2 standards, essentially dimensional interchangeability standards for chemical process pumps Hydraulic Institute (HI) standards – for general service pumps

50

Pump Standards - Applicability

API 610

VIL

Hor O/H

Btwn Brg

Y

Y

Y

ANSI B73.1

Y

ANSI B73.2

Y

Hydr Inst (HI)

Y

Y

Y 51

General Info - API 610-10th •



Per (5.3.5) minimum casing pressure design conditions are 600 psig at 100 F (4000 kPag at 38 C), or at least a Class 300 flange rating per B16.5 Per (5.3.9), radially split casings are required for: T > 200C - flammable or hazardous fluid with SG < 0.7 at pumping temp - flammable or hazardous fluid at rated P-dis > 100 bar -





Per (5.3.11), centre-line mounting required, except that per (8.2.1.2) between-bearing pumps with T < 150C may be foot mounted Per (8.1.2.7), the bearing housing temp for grease lubricated OH3 pumps shall be <= 82C at T-amb of 43C 52

General Info – ANSI/ASME B73 pumps • •

Casing pressure-temperature rating per B16.5 Class 150 flange rating Typical application limits (per API 610 – 8th ed) -



service is non-flammable and non-toxic P-dis <= 19 barg, P-suc <= 5 barg T-max <= 150 C Head <= 120 m N <= 3600 rpm diameter <= 330 mm (13 in) for overhung pumps

Typical Company limits Low process-fluid temperature limit - Driver size limit for Vertical inline pumps -

53

ANSI B73.1 – Typical Coverage ANSI Pump Size (Dis x Suc) 1x1-1/2 1-1/2x3 2x3 3x4 4x6 6x8 8x10

Impeller Diameter (inches) 6

8

2,4 2,4 2,4

2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4

10

13

15

17

2,4 2,4 2,4 2,4

2,4 2,4 2,4 4 4 4

4 4 4

4 4 4

VIL Pump Coverage 2 = 3600 rpm (2-pole) 4 = 1800 rpm (4-pole) ref: B73.1, Table 4 "Approximate Performance Standards for Pumps (60 hz)" 54

What type of plant? •

Class of Plant Class 1 : low first cost, lower on-stream factor - Class 2: a Class 1 plant with selective upgrades - Class 3: higher first cost, higher on-stream factor -



Construction (wrt pumps) -

Modularized or not modularized

55

Questions?

56

Loading...

Centrifugal Pump Selection and Sizing - Calgary Pump Symposium

Centrifugal Pump Selection and Sizing 2009 Calgary Pump Symposium Chris Gilmour, P.Eng. Pump types being Considered • One and two stage centrifuga...

2MB Sizes 9 Downloads 4 Views

Recommend Documents

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SELECTION, SIZING, AND INTERPRETATION
PUMP SELECTION, SIZING AND INTERPRETATION OF PERFORMANCE. 4 • 3. Performance Curve. At some point in the pump selectio

Submersible Pump Sizing & Selection
TDH=Pumping Level + Vertical Rise + Friction Loss. Calculating Head. Submergence. Pump Depth. Well Depth. Pumping. Level

Froth Pumping - Calgary Pump Symposium
Nov 9, 2007 - Solutions. Weir Minerals North America. 13. Froth Pumping: Pump Types. ▫Traditional Horizontal Slurry. P

Centrifugal Pump Sizing Spreadsheet - missrifka
Jan 2, 2017 - So, instead sharing full article, in this post, I want to share you centrifugal pump sizing spreadsheet. I

Fire Pump Sizing and Selection - Plumbing Engineer
Mar 14, 2014 - When starting a fire pump design, the most important item to consider is the water supply. If you are uti

Pump Selection and Sizing - KLM Technology Group.Com
They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. The final design must alway

Fire Pump Sizing and Selection - Trombold Equipment
pump design point? This will ensure that the municipal sup ply will provide enough volume to meet the system demand . If

Pump Selection: Pump Selection Xls
Jun 15, 2017 - Pump Selection Xls Images. TOTAL HEAD, N.P.S.H. AND OTHER CALCULATION EXAMPLES Jacques ... TOTAL HEAD, N.

Excel TM in Centrifugal Pump Selection
of the hydraulics analysis can also be extended to a typical process centrifugal pumping need. A Microsoft. Excel TM com

Pump Sizing | Pump | Flow Measurement
Table 2. calculated using the Antoine equation. bar Pv. D is the pipe internal at the pump inlet and then calculate the