Athens - Wiley Online Library

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Index

Page numbers in italics denotes an illustration/table

Abel, Chris, 14, 218–21 accounting, 227 Acropolis (Athens), 147 Adorno, Theodore, 56, 58, 106 aesthetics, 7, 97, 171–200, 223 and contextualism, 179–84 definition, 173 and design control, 193 and economy, 174 empirical, 174 and mathematics, 175–9, 180 objects and experiences, 171–3, 174 and rationalism, 184–6 and regulation, 192–4 relationship between scientific activity and, 172 and role of history, 193–4 and symbolic capital, 186–92, 193, 194 and theming, 192, 194–200 and Townscape movement, 182–3 and urban design, 172 of urban form, 173–5 Agenda 21, 154 agora, Greek, 90, 146, 176 airports, 114, 190–1, 261 Alberti, Leon Battista, 177, 179 Alexander, Christopher, 20, 30, 103, 203–4, 206, 223–6, 254, 256 The Nature of Order, 226 A New Theory of Urban Design, 14 Notes on a Synthesis of Form, 223, 225 A Pattern Language, 225 Algeria, 132

Ali, Tariq, 1 Althusser, Louis, 64, 73, 107 ambiguous space, 144 American Institute of Architects, 27 Amery, Jean, 22 Amin, S., 160 analogical models influence of on design of cities, 219 ancient cities, 186 Andre´, Jean Baptiste, 140 Andrea, J.V., 33 animals, 167, 168 Anna Livia Plurabelle monument (Dublin), 147–9, 148 Appadurai, Arjun, 229, 231–2 Appleyard, Donald, 104, 250 Arato, Andrew, 106 Aravot, I., 71–2 arcades, 221 arch, triumphal, 94–5, 95, 96 archetypal typology, 206–8 Architectural Review, The, 182 architecture, 3, 18, 47 as an academic discipline; and a profession, 245–6 and aesthetics, 172–3 of democracy, 90–1 and gender, 127, 146–9 Greek, 176 landscape, 183, 184 as logical outcome of machine production, 216, 217 natural origins of, 216–17 and painting, 183 and semiotics, 67–8

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architecture (cont’d) systems view of, 13, 13 and urban design, 2, 13–14, 20, 245, 248–9 and urban planning, 13–14, 225, 246 Arendt, Hannah, 90 art and capitalism, 187 public, 94, 97 artificial systems, 201 Arts and Crafts movement, 60 Asia Minor, 1 Australia, 169 National Museum, 101 authenticity, 6, 106, 113–15, 116, 118–21, 194, 217 automobiles see car ownership Aymonino, Carlos, 47 Bachelard, Gaston, 70 Bacon, Edmund, 250 Bacon, Francis, 33 Bakunin, Mikhail, 241 Bali project, 116, 118, 119 Banham, Reyner, 217, 232 Barker, Roger, 216 Barnett, Jonathan, 249, 250 Barthes, Roland, 18, 53 Battery Park City (New York), 25 Baudrillard, Jean, 25, 39, 53, 54, 60, 88, 107, 108, 110 Bauhaus, 54, 60–3 beauty and aesthetics, 173, 174–5 Bedouin, 136 behaviourism, 71, 103–4 Beirut Martyr’s Square, 118, 120, 121, 121, 122 belle e´poque, 32 Benjamin, Walter, 53, 56, 58, 70, 106 Bentham, Jeremy Panopticon, 216 Berger, Peter, 69 Berlin Brandenberg Gate, 146 Hitler’s grand plan for, 57 Monument to Holocaust victims, 91–3, 93 Bilbao, 77 biological determinism, 130–1 black women, 136 Blade Runner, 35

Bober, M., 46 Bonfadio, Jacopo, 184 Bookchin, M., 159 Bottomore, Tom, 72 Boudin, L., 46 Bourdieu, Pierre, 53, 175, 187–9, 190 Boyer, Christine The City of Collective Memory, 20, 32, 89, 93–4 Dreaming the Rational City, 32 Boys, J., 145 Brandenberg Gate (Berlin), 146 Broadbent, G., 67 Brown, Norman O., 56 Brundtland Report, The (1987), 159 Built Environment, 127 built environment, 15, 21, 43, 55, 75, 98, 115, 163, 164 as composite of fragments, 38–9 conservation of, 169 regulation of, 192–4 semiotic nature of, 68–9 Burgess, Meredith, 58, 59 Burnett, J., 221 Burns, R., 23 Cabet, Etienne, 33 Calvino, Italo Travels in Hyper-reality, 199–200 Canada, 239–40 Canadian Institute of Planners (CIP), 239, 240 Canary Wharf (London), 25 Canberra (Australia), 35 Canter, David, 250 capital/capitalism, 74, 75, 88, 100, 105, 109, 133, 187, 231, 260 and art, 187 and gender, 132–6 global, 258, 259 and patriarchy, 131 relationship with urban landscape, 68–9 and sustainable development, 161, 162 symbolic, 186–92, 193, 194 three circuits of, 164, 165 car ownership, 142–3, 169 Carson, Rachel Silent Spring, 150, 153, 154 Castells, Manuel, 22, 52, 54, 60, 85, 88, 101, 102, 111, 136, 226–9, 260 The City and the Grassroots, 17, 64

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definition of urban design, 17–18, 65 The Urban Question, 10, 13, 63, 64 Castro, C., 153–4, 159–60 central business districts, 193, 225 Chambers, Iain, 230 Chaplin, Sarah, 232 Charter of Athens, 221 Chicago Exposition (1893), 194, 196, 198 Chicago School, 54, 58–60, 69 Children, exploitation of, 134 China, 163 socialist cities in, 80 Chossudofsky, M., 160 Christianity, and history, 24 chronologies, 27–9 Cicero, 184 cinema, 35 city/cities concentric growth of, 163, 164, 209 densification of, 169, 192–3, 261 driven by profit and class exploitation, 164 ideological neutralisation of, 217 laws necessary for understanding, 218 and nature, 150–2 right to the, 83–4, 85 socialist, 163–4 sustainable, 7, 162–8 as a text, 40 civil rights, 84 Clarke, David The Cinematic City, 35 Clarke, Paul Walker, 7, 17, 18, 174 class, 137–8, 241 ‘co-housing’, 144 Cohen, G.A. Karl Marx’s Theory of History, 46 collage, urban design as, 40, 42–3, 42 collective consumption, 136 collective memory, 8, 94, 121, 174 ‘collective unconscious’, 89 Colman, J., 250 colonialism, 113 colonisation, 126 commodity fetishism, 109–10, 111 communism, 44 community, 59, 113 Compact Cities, 169 Compte, Auguste, 207 concentric zone theory, 59 Congress International d’Architecture Moderne (1945), 181–2

293

Connolly, James, 127 Connor, S., 110 consciousness, 69, 70, 105, 212 conservation, 102, 169, 193–4 contextualism, 55, 56, 175, 179–84, 186 Cook, Peter, 35 Cooke, Philip, 218–19 Corbusier, Le, 186, 217, 223 Plan Voisin, 35, 62 use of Fibonacci series, 178–9, 178 La Ville Contemporaine, 38 core–periphery relationship, 15 Corporation, The (documentary), 259 corporations/corporatism, 238, 239 Cosgrove, Dennis, Social Formation and Symbolic Landscape, 94, 187 Craik, J., 191 critical regionalism, 123, 126, 191 critical theory, 56 crowding, 192–3 cruise ships, 114, 261 Cullen, Gordon, 175 Townscape, 11, 182–3 cultural capital see knowledge cultural landscape, 184 culture, 6, 18, 101–26, 212, 264 and authenticity, 113–15 and Frankfurt School, 105–6 global, 110–13 and Hall, 212, 214–15 and language, 111 of modernism, 104–7 and postmodernism, 107–10 and symbolic representation, 113, 115–18 and urban design, 101–4 ‘culture of critical discourse’ (CCD), 242 culture industry, 58, 111–12, 190, 191 Cuthbert, Alexander, Designing Cities, 4, 11, 13, 173–4 cybercities, 230 Darwin, Charles, 179 Davis, Mike, 65, 232 Late Victorian Holocausts, 263 Day, K., 144–5, 145–6 de Botton, Alain, 261 De Certeau, M., Walking in the City, 70 de Saussure, Ferdinand, 39, 53, 54, 65–6 Dear, Michael, 65, 85 The Post-modern Urban Condition, 170

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Debord, Guy, 54, 108 Society of the Spectacle, 25, 109, 188, 189 deconstruction, 39, 40, 54 deep ecology, 156, 158–9 defensible space, 71, 145 Deleuze, Gilles, 53 Delphy, Christine, 135 democracy architecture of, 90–1 threatening of, 258–9 Denkmal, 92 densification of cities, 169, 192–3, 261 Department of the Environment (DOE), 250 Training for Urban Design, 254–6 Derrida, Jacques, 39–40, 53, 72 Descartes, Rene´, 186 design control, 193 design guidelines, 193 design process, 225 Designing Cities (Cuthbert), 4, 11, 13,173–4 Deutsche, Rosalyn, 97 dialectical materialism, 73 Diaz-Moore, K.D., 250 Dickens, Peter, 49–50, 50, 51, 52, 53 ‘difference’ Derrida’s concept of, 39–40 digital highways, 230 Disneyland, 198, 200 division of labour, 105, 160 sexual, 129, 131, 134, 138, 162 domestic labour, 133, 136 domestic sphere gender and urban design, 141–4 Dovey, Kim, Framing Places, 20 Doxiadis Associates, 208 Doxiadis, Constantinos, 30, 208–12, 225 Architectural Space in Ancient Greece, 176 and ekistic theory/grid, 59, 208, 211–12, 211 plan of Islamabad, 209, 210 dual systems theory, 129, 130, 131–2 Dubai shopping mall, 114–15 Dunleavy, P., 236 Durand, L.N., 222 Durkheim, Emile, 58 Dynapolis, 208, 209, 211 eagle, 90, 91, 92 Earth Summit (Rio de Janeiro) (1992), 154, 155

Eaton, R., 32 Eco, Umberto, 53, 66, 68, 260 eco-city movement, 151 eco-feminism, 158, 162 eco-socialism, 162 ecological urban design, 158 ecology 59, 158; see also deep ecology economy and aesthetics, 174 global, 111–12 Ecumenopolis, 59, 208, 209 Eder, Klaus The Social Construction of Nature, 156 ‘edge cities’, 193 education, 8, 235, 241, 264 and urban design, 245–57 Egypt, 35 Eiffel Tower, 146 Einstein, Albert, 9 Eisenman, Peter, 204, 204, 205 ekistic theory/grid, 59, 208, 209, 211–12, 211 Ellin, Nan Postmodern Urbanism, 11, 18 Elste, John, 46 Engels, Friedrich, 68, 105, 131 The Condition of the Working Class in England, 152 The Dialectics of Nature, 152 Enlightenment, 24 entasis, 176 Environmental Design Research Association (EDRA), 102 environment, 7, 150–70, 184, 213 and Marxism, 152 nature and the city, 150–2 origins and development, 152–4 people–nature relationship, 154, 156–9 and sustainable cities, 162–8 and sustainable development see sustainable development environmental conservation, 102 environmental degradation, 152 environmental professions, 243–4 environmental psychology, 71, 102 epistemology, 202 Erikson, Eric, 103, 225 essentialism, 113–14, 129 ethics, 202 ethnoscape, 231 Euclid, 175, 176 ‘eureka principle’, 186

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European Sustainable Cities Programme, 154, 155 fabric, 183 facadism, 194 Faludi, Andreas, 87, 218 Fanon, Franz, 132 fascism, 56, 106, 223 Featherstone, Mike Global Culture, 110–11 Federal Housing Act (1949) (US), 196 Federal Plaza (New York), 97, 98, 99 feminism/feminists, 127, 129, 130, 132 and Marxism, 129, 131, 133 Fenster, T., 136 Fibonacci (Leonardo Pisano), 177, 178 Fibonacci series, 177, 178–9, 178 figure–ground relationship, 182 fin de sie`cle, 2, 184 financescape, 231 Fishman, Robert Bourgeois Utopias, 37 Fitzmaurice, T., 35 flaˆneur concept, 70, 144 Fordism, 217 Foster, Norman, 189 Foucault, Michel, 24–5, 53, 54, 107, 231, 232–3, 260 The Archaeology of Knowledge, 24 concept of power, 75–6, 82–3, 132 Fourier, Charles, 140 Fox, Warwick, 158 A Transpersonal Ecology, 156–7 fragments, 37–43 Frampton, Kenneth, 126 Frankel, Boris Beyond the State, 75 Frankfurt School, 52, 53, 54, 56–8, 105–6 Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 93 Freidson, E., 238 Freud, Sigmund Civilisation and its Discontents, 2 Fromm, Erich, 56, 213 Fukuyama, F., 24, 108 Fulbrook, Mary Historical Theory, 23 Fuller, Buckminster, 30 functionalism, 104, 184–5 Gallaretese Quarter (Milan), 47, 48 Galileo, 233

295

Garden Cities, 33, 206, 246 gardens, 183, 184 Garnier, Tony Cite´ Industrielle, 35 Gateway Arch (St Louis), 95, 96 gay communities, 139 Geddes, Patrick, 28–9, 152, 206–8, 211 Cities in Evolution, 28–9 ‘Wheel of Life’, 207, 207, 233 Geist, J.F., 221 gender, 6–7, 97, 127–49 and capital/capitalism, 132–6 and monumental architecture, 146–9 and patriarchy, 130–2 and planning theory, 137 and society, 128–30 and space, 136–9, 146, 264 and urban design, 127–8, 139–49 genetic engineering, 128, 260 geography, 11 and spatial political economy, 16 geometry and utopian city concept, 35 Germany, 60–3 gestalt, 182 Getty Museum, 199 Giddens, A., 132 Giedion, Siegfried, 181–2 global capitalism, 258, 259 global culture, 110–13 global economy, 111–12 globalisation, 74 –5, 110–13, 123, 134–5, 160, 161 golden ratio/section, 175–6, 177, 178 Goode, Terence, 217–18 Gordon, P., 169 Gosling, Nigel Concepts of Urban Design, 14 ‘Definitions of urban design’, 10 Gottman, Jean, 208–9 Gouldner, A., 235 The Future of Intellectuals and the Rise of the New Class, 241–2 Graham, Gibson, 108 Graham, S., 230 Gramsci, Antonio, 107, 109 Grande Arche of La De´fense, La (Paris) 95, 96 Gray, John, Straw Dogs, 24, 259 Greece, ancient, 1, 28, 33, 90 architecture, 176

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Greece, ancient (cont’d) and mathematics, 175–9 and site planning, 176–7 Greenbelt Towns programme, 138 gridiron, 1 grids, 176, 177, 204, 211 ekistic, 211–12, 211 Griffin, Walter Burley, 35 Gropius, Walter, 60, 61 Guattari, Felix, 53 Guiraud, Pierre, 205, 206 Gunder, M., 250 Guttenberg, A.Z., 227 Habermas, Ju¨rgen, 56 habitus, 188–9 Hall, E.T., 102, 212–13 Hall, Peter, 3, 28 Cities in Civilisation, 31–2 Hall, Stuart, 107 Halprin, Lawrence, 70 Hamnett, S., 250 Hanoi, 163 Hanson, Julienne, 31 Harris, Nigel, 108 Harvey, David, 98, 115, 136–7 The Condition of Postmodernity, 74, 105, 108, 109 Social Justice and the City, 164 The Urbanisation of Capital, 68–9, 164, 165 Hawken, P., 164 Hayden, Dolores, 143 The Grand Domestic Revolution, 127 The Power of Place, 94 Hays, K.M., 61–2 Hearn, J., 131 Heidegger, Martin, 52, 53, 69, 70, 71, 72 Held, David, 56 Heller, Agnes A Philosophy of History in Fragments, 39 heterotopias, 198, 231, 232–3 ‘heterotopic’ spaces, 82 hierarchy(ies), 203, 204–5 high-rise development, 193, 194 Hilberseimer, Ludwig, 35, 61–2, 62 Hillier, Bill, 20, 71, 103–4, 218 The Social Logic of Space, 14 Hippocrates, 175, 176 Hippodamus, 33 history(ies), 5, 22–51 chronologies, 27–9

differing destinies of, 24–5 fragments, 37–43 and materialist theory, 43–51 role in aesthetic properties of a city, 193–4 typologies, 29–32 and urban design, 25–7, 26 utopias, 32–7 Hitler, Adolf, 56, 57 Hollywood and Highland Project (Los Angeles), 198, 199, 200 homes gender and design of, 139 Homes (Homemaker’s Organisation for a More Egalitarian Society), 143 Hong Kong, 17, 84, 263 Murray Building, 194, 197 public housing, 115, 116, 117 Repulse Bay Hotel, 194, 196 Shanghai Bank, 189–90 Horkheimer, Max, 56, 106 Horney, Karen, 213 housing types, 144 housing typologies, 221 Howard, Ebeneezer, 33, 140, 152, 206, 246 Howland, Marie, 140 Huet, Bernard, 47 ‘human community, the’, 59, 208, 211 human rights, 83–4 humanism, 62 Hunt, J.D., 183, 184 Husserl, Edmund, 52, 54, 69 Huxley, Aldous, 33 Huxley, T.H., 207 hyperreality, 199 ideological production, 47, 49 ideology, 88 law as, 85–6 and politics, 6, 79–81 ideoscapes, 231–2 IMF (International Monetary Fund), 160 imperialism, 74–5, 105, 259–60, 263 Incas, 25 Indian village, 225 Industrial Revolution, 140, 152, 182, 216, 241 industrialism, 19–20 inequality effect on concepts of sustainability, 166 Institute of British Architects, 245

I ND EX

Institute for the Formation of Character, 140 Institution of Civil Engineers, 255 ‘institutionalised space’, 85 instrumental value theory, 156 ‘international style’, 112 intrinsic value theory, 156, 157–8 Iraq war, 259 Islamic world, cities in, 80–1 Italian architects, 67 Italian Renaissance, 177, 179 Jacobs, Jane, 254 Jameson, Frederic, 53, 105 Jencks, Charles, 3, 67, 90, 186, 232 Jenkins, K., 23 Johnson, Nuala, 95, 97, 148–9 Journal of Urban Design, 14, 127 Joyce, James, 22, 35, 150 Ulysses, 36 judicial system, 85 Jung, C.G., 89 Kahn, Louis, 186 Kant, Immanuel, 172, 186 Kayden, J.S., 4 Kenworthy, J., 169 Kierkegaard, Søren, Philosophical Fragments, 39 Kimsey Owen, Albert, 140 kinaesthetics, 183 King, Ross, 232 Emancipating Space, 11, 20 Kirby, A.M., 85 kitchens, 140 kitsch, 67 Knack, Ruth, 10 Knesl, John, 50 knowledge, 235, 241–2 and money capital, 241–2 professions and systems of, 241–3 systemic aspects of, 202 Koetter, Fred, 14, 40, 42, 50, 182 Kostoff, Spiro, 221 The City Assembled, 31, 221 The City Shaped, 31, 221 Krier, Leon, 90, 206, 221 Luxembourg Project, 222 The Reconstruction of the City, 221 Krier, Rob, 186, 221–3, 233 Urban Space, 14, 29, 42, 50, 182, 221, 224

297

Kristeva, Julia, 53 Kropotkin, Peter, 206 labour, 45, 74, 75, 110, 187, 188, 222 Lacan, Jacques, 53 Laclau, Ernesto, 53 land development, 76–7, 81 and private sector, 166 land ownership, 77 land use, 227, 229 relationship between social reproduction and, 228 landscape architecture, 183, 184 landscape painting, 183, 184 Lang, Fritz, 35 Lang, Jon, 173–4 Urban Design: The American Experience, 4, 11 language(s), 66 and culture, 111 and political consciousness, 68 and Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, 66 specialised, 242 Las Vegas, 198, 232 law as ideology, 85–6 and professions, 244 Le Play, Frederick, 207 Leach, R., 80 Lechte, John, 69 Lefebvre, Henri, 54, 63, 68, 79 La Re´volution Urbaine, 63 Lehan, Richard The City in Literature, 33 Leigh, William Robinson, 34 Leighton, Alexander, 103, 213, 225 Leonardo da Vinci, 177 lesbian spaces, 139 Le´vi-Strauss, C., 202 Structural Anthropology, 202–3 Totemism, 202 Levinas, Emmanuel, 53 liberalism and gender, 129–30 literature as source of inspiration for urban designers, 33, 35 Lloyd Wright, Frank, 35 logic, 202 logical empiricism, 53 Lorenz, Konrad, 103

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Los Angeles, 230, 232 Hollywood and Highland project, 198, 199, 200 Los Angeles School, 54, 64–5 Lowenthal, Leo, 56 Lucas, Edouard, 177 Luka´cs, George, 52, 106 Lynch, Kevin, 20, 71, 250, 254, 256 A Theory of Good City Form, 14, 104 Lyotard, Jean-Franc¸ois, 53, 72, 107, 108 McAuslan, P. The Ideologies of Planning Law, 85–6 McDowell, L., 138 McHarg, Ian, 154, 158 Design with Nature, 153 machine production architecture as outcome of, 216 McLoughlin, J.B., 15–16, 169, 170 McLuhan, Marshall Understanding Media, 111 Madanipour, Ali Design of Urban Space, 14 Mahnmal, 92, 93 Maitland, B., 14 Malinowski, Bronisław, 103 Mao Tse-tung, 6 Maoism, 63 Marcuse, Herbert, 56, 63, 92–3 One Dimensional Man, 63 Marshall, N.G., 239, 240 Martyr’s Square (Beirut), 118, 120, 121, 121, 122 Marx, Karl, 15, 30, 45, 54, 73–4, 100, 133, 161 and aesthetics, 187 Capital, 2, 51, 152 and commodity fetishism, 110 and culture, 105, 107 and environment, 152 and Foucault, 24 The German Ideology, 44, 68 and ideologies, 68, 81 and patriarchy, 131 and philosophy, 72–3 philosophy of history, 44 theory of history, 44–5 Marxism, 24, 45, 49, 52, 63 and culture, 107 and environment, 152 and feminism, 129, 131, 133 and historical materialism, 43–5 and nature, 161–2

and political economy, 58, 72–8 Maslow, Abraham, 103, 213, 225 mass media, 106, 111, 134 mass production, 60, 61, 62–3 master architect, 213 Mata, Soria y, 35 materialist theory, 43–51, 87 mathematics, 175–9, 180 Meadows, Dennis The Limits to Growth, 153–4 mediascapes, 231 medical profession, 238 Megalopolis, 208–9 Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, 53, 69 meta-programmes, 203, 205 metaphysics, 202 Metropolis, 35, 37 metropolis, 230 Metz, Christian, 53 Meyer, Hannes, 61 Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig, 61, 186, 213 migration, rural–urban, 162–3 Milan Gallaretese Quarter, 47, 48 Miletus, 33 mimesis, 180 Minca, Claudio Postmodern Geography, 18 Mingione, Enzo, 164 Social Conflict and the City, 166 Mitchel, W.J., 102 modelling concept, 202, 203 modernism, 19–20, 104–7, 108, 138, 187 modes of production, 45, 47–8, 51, 75, 133 Moholy-Nagy, Sybil The Matrix of Man, 30–1 monopolies, 239, 242 monumental architecture, 89, 90, 94, 146–9, 222 and gender, 146–9 and nationalism, 95, 97 Moore, Gary, 250 More, Sir Thomas, 33 Utopia, 32 morphed landscapes, 231 morphology, 201 urban, 40, 175, 179 Morris, William, 33, 60 Moudon, Anne Vernez, 14, 249, 250, 253, 254, 256 Mouffe, Chantal, 53

I ND EX

multiculturalism, 109 Mumford, Lewis, 28–9, 33, 102, 152, 250 The City in History, 28 The Story of Utopias, 33 Murray Building (Hong Kong), 194, 197 Mussolini, B., 56 Naess, Arne, 156, 158 Napoleon III, 55–6 National Museum (Australia), 101 nationalism and monuments, 95, 97 nature, 1–2, 88 and the city, 150–2 relationship with people, 154, 156–9 Nazis, 61 neoclassical architecture, 223 neoclassical economic theory, 87 neocorporatism, 80, 84, 166, 259 and Canadian Institute of Planners, 240 and professionalism, 238–9, 240 and urban planning, 151, 166 neo-Kantianism, 53 neo-Marxism, 53 neo-Nietzscheanism, 53 New Deal, 138 New Lanark (Scotland), 140 New Middle Ages, 260 New Ruralism, 6, 113, 122–6 ‘new towns’ (Britain), 3 New Urbanism, 6, 14, 28, 113, 122–6, 191, 198, 206 New York, 124, 125 Federal Plaza, 97, 98, 99 Worker’s cooperative colony, 142 Newman, Oscar, 71, 103, 145, 169 Nolli, Giovani Battista, 180, 180 non-human life, 167 Norberg-Schulz, Christian, 70–1, 250 Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey, 35 Noyes, John Humphrey, 140 Ockman, Jane, 232 O’Connor, James, 161 Odum, Charles The Fundamentals of Ecology, 158 Oliver, P. Shelter, Sign and Symbol, 115 Olsen, D.J., 183 open spaces, 84, 138 optics, 176, 183

299

Orwell, George, 33 Outhwaite, W., 52 Owen, Robert, 140 Paciole, Luca, 177 Pahl, Ray, 59 painting, and architecture, 183 palace, 90, 115 Palladio, Andrea, 179 Pan Pacific Exposition (1915), 195 Parc de la Villette (Paris), 40, 41 Paris, 56 La Grande Arche of La De´fense, 95, 96 ‘Paris School’, 54, 63–4 Park, Robert, 58 Parker, Barry, 140 Parthenon (Athens), 176 patriarchy, 130–2, 133, 135, 137, 138, 139 patterns, 225 Pentagon, 147 Perez-Gomez, Alberto, 72 periphery, expansion of, 193 Perrin, Constance, 59, 213, 216 pesticides, 150, 152–3 Phalansteries, 140 phenomenology, 54, 69–72, 263 philosophy, 5–6, 52–78, 263 difference between ideology and, 81 schools of thought, 55–65 and urban design, 65–78 and urbanism, 54–65 phonological system, 205 physical determinism, 151 Piacentini, Marcello, 56 Piaget, Jean, 70, 202, 203 piazza, 90 Piazza San Marco (Venice), 94 picturesque, 175, 183 Pierce, Charles Sanders, 39 Pisano, Leonardo see Fibonacci place, 113 placemaking, 113, 115 ‘planning history’, 246 Planning Institute of Australia (PIA), 249 planning law, 85–6 planning theory, 218 and gender, 137 planning, urban see urban planning Plato, 186 The Laws, 33 The Republic, 33

300

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Polanyi, K., 236 The Great Transformation, 161 polar coordinates, 176, 177, 180 policing, 103 polis, 29 political economy, 54, 133, 218, 245, 262 Marxian, 58, 72–8 political rights, 84 politics, 6, 79–100 and ideology, 6, 79–81 and public realm, 89–100 rights and laws, 82–5 and urban planning, 86–9 Pollock, Griselda, 70 Popper, Karl The Poverty of Historicism, 44 post-Marxist theory, 45, 74 posthumanism, 62 postindustrialism, 19–20 postmetropolis, 230 postmodernism, 3, 11, 18, 39–40, 53, 105, 123, 186, 191, 203, 259 and culture, 107–10 and fragmentation, 39 properties of, 19–20 and structure, 203 and urbanism, 228, 230 poststructuralism, 108 post-tourism, 114, 261 Potsdamer Platz (Berlin), 25 Poulantzas, Nicos, 64 power, 6, 75–6, 82–5 Foucault’s concept of, 75–6, 82–3, 132 and the state, 84 ‘powers of architecture’, 17 pragmatics, 8, 234, 235–57, 264 Preteceille, E., 85 Preziosi, M., 67 primitive hut, 216 private realm, 144 privatisation and planning, 170 privatised public space, 4, 144, 145–6 professions, 8, 236–41 and knowledge systems, 241–3 and law, 244 and neocorporatism, 238–9, 240 relationship between capitalist production and, 236, 237 and space, 243–5 and specialised language, 242

transference of autonomy from individual to, 236–7 uneven development of, 238 and urban design education, 245–57 prostitution, and tourism, 134 proxemics, 212 Pruitt–Igoe housing estate (St Louis), 3 public art, 94, 97 public realm, 2, 89–100, 138, 254, 260, 263 and democracy, 90 erosion of, 84–5 gender and urban design, 144–9 political and ideological function, 89–100 and rights, 83–4 public space privatised, 144, 145–6 women’s fear of, 144–5 Pythagoras, 175, 178 radical feminism, 129, 132 Rapoport, Amos, 250 House, Form and Culture, 104 rationalism/rationalists, 30, 55, 56, 175, 181, 184–6, 217, 218, 223 Rayment-Pickard, H., 23 regulation of built environment, 192–4 Reich, Wilhelm, 56 Relph, Edward, 232 Renaissance, 24 Repulse Bay Hotel (Hong Kong), 194, 196 Richardson, M., 169 Ricoeur, Paul, 53, 107 right to the city, 83–4, 85 robotics, 217 Roman Forum, 90 Rome Nolli’s plan of (1748), 180, 180 Rome, ancient triumphal arch of, 95, 95 Roosevelt, 138 Rossi, Aldo, 47, 48, 49, 67, 174, 186 Rowe, Colin and Koetter, Fred Collage City, 14, 40, 42, 50, 182 Roweis, S.T., 170 Rowley, Alistair ‘Definitions of urban design’, 10 Royal Institute of British Architects, 255 Royal Town Planning Institute, 2, 246, 255 Rubin, Barbara, 174, 195, 196 Ruskin, John, 60

I ND EX

Rykwert, Joseph The Seduction of Place, 20 Sacre´ Coeur (Paris), 146–7 St Louis Exposition (1904), 194 St Peter’s Basilica (Rome), 146–7 Sant’Elia, Antonio, 35 Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, 66 Sartre, Jean Paul, 69, 70 Saul, John Ralston, 239 Saunders, Peter, 226 Sayer, Andrew, 1 Schorske, C.E., 104–5, 185 Schumacher, E.F., 154 Small is Beautiful, 153 Schurch, Thomas, 249, 254, 256 Schutz, Alfred, 69 Schwartz, Martha, 98, 99 science, 52 Scotland Stone of Scone, 93 Scott, Allen, 10, 65, 243 The Cultural Economy of Cities, 190 Scott, Ridley, 35 Scottish Enlightenment, 4, 44 Scruton, Roger, 68 The Aesthetics of Architecture, 172–3 Second World War, 182 Seife, Charles, Zero: The Biography of a Dangerous Idea, 175 Selye, Hans, 213 semantic system, 205–6 semiotics, 53, 54, 58, 63, 65–9, 81, 89, 229, 263 September 11th (2001), 193 serial vision, 175, 182, 183 Serlio, Sebastiano, 95, 179 Serra, Richard, 97 Sert, Jose Luis, 181–2 sex tourism, 134 Sforzinda, 35 Shane, G., 182 Shiel, M. and Fitzmaurice, T., Cinema and the City, 35 shopping malls, 114–15 sieve-mapping process, 153, 158 signs see semiotics Simmel, George, 58, 225 The Philosophy of Money, 2 Simon, Herbert, 203, 204

301

The Sciences of the Artificial, 13, 201 site planning and ancient Greeks, 176–7 Sitte, Camillo, 104, 175, 179–82, 181, 184, 185–6, 187 The Art of Building Cities, 2, 55, 179, 246 Der Stadtebau, 179, 182 Skinner, B.F., 33 skyscraper architecture, 193 Smart, Barry, 108 Smith, A.D., 111 Smith, Adam, 4, 15 Smith, Peter, 183 social anthropology, 212 socialism, 80 socialist cities, 163–4 socialist countries, former, 238 ‘socio-spatial dialectic’, 16 sociology, urban, 11, 52 Soja, Ed, 65, 137, 229–30, 232 Postmetropolis, 230 Solidere, 118 space, 75, 221, 260 and contextualism, 179 defensible, 71, 145 and gender, 136–9, 146, 264 impacting of politico-juridical system on, 85 language as, 63 medieval, 233 and professions, 243–5 see also urban space spatial political economy, 4, 14, 51, 262 and typologies, 226–34 and urban design, 15–21 spectacles, 192 Speer, Albert, 56, 57 Sprieregen, Paul Urban Design, 27–8 squares, 221, 223 state, the, 89 social control by, 84–5 and urban planning, 75–6, 77 Statue of Liberty, 146, 147 Stevenson, Neal Snow Crash, 199 ‘Stilarchitecture’, 2 Stillwell, Frank Political Economy, 74 Stirling, James, 186 Stone of Scone (Scotland), 93

302

INDE X

streets, 221, 223 striving sentiments, 213, 216 structure/structuralism, 202–3 suburbs, 123, 138, 141–2 and urban–suburban dichotomy, 123 and women, 138–9, 141–3 surveillance, 103 sustainable cities, 7, 162–8 European Programme, 154, 155 United Nations Programme, 154, 155 sustainable development, 7, 150–1, 153–4, 159–62, 206, 259, 263 and The Brundtland Report, 159 critical perspectives, 160–1, 162 mainstream approach towards, 159–60 policies and initiatives on, 155 sustainable urban design, 151, 163, 168–70, 263 Sydney, 194, 195 Sydney Opera House, 147 symbolic capital, 186–92, 193, 194 symbolic representation, 6, 113, 115–21 symbolism, 104 systems, 87, 203–5 view of professional boundaries, 13, 13 Szelenyi, Ivan, 164 Tafuri, Manfredo, 49, 68 Architecture and Utopia, 35, 37, 47 Tarkovsky, Andrey, 171 taxonomy, 201, 202, 205–6 Taylor, Nigel, 183 Taylorism, 217 technology, improvements in, 151 technoscape, 231 Tendenza, La, 47 Terragni, Giuseppe, 56 text, city as a, 40 theme parks, 114, 198 theming, 192, 194–200, 261 theory, urban design, 11–14 Third Reich, 92 Thompson, E.P., 107 Tilted Arc sculpture (New York), 97–8, 98 Topolobampo (Mexico), 140, 141 Touraine, Alain, 53, 54, 58, 63 tourism, 112, 113, 122, 123, 190, 191 and authenticity, 114–15 and prostitution, 134

sex, 134 town planning, 2, 245, 246; see also urban planning Town Planning Institute, 206 Townscape movement, 182–3 traditional urban design typologies derived from, 216–26 training see education Trancik, Roger, 20 Finding Lost Space, 14 trans-species urban practice, 167, 168 transnational corporations, 259 triumphal arch, 94–5, 95, 96 Troy, P., 169 The Perils of Urban Consolidation, 169 Tschumi, Bernard, 41 Architecture and Disjunction, 40, 46, 46 typologies, 7–8, 29–32, 201–34 derived from associated disciplines, 206–16 derived from traditional urban design perspectives, 216–26 and spatial political economy, 226–34 Ujung (Bali) water palace at, 118 United Nations, 154 Sustainable Cities Programme, 154, 155 United States, 111, 195–6, 260 universities, 241, 247–9 University of New South Wales, 257 Masters of Urban Development and Design course, 115–16 Unwin, Raymond, 141 urban consolidation, 169 urban design and aesthetics, 171 and architecture, 2, 13–14, 20, 245, 248–9 and authenticity, 113–15 Castells’ definition, 17–18, 65 as collage, 40, 42–3, 42 and culture, 101–4 definitions, 9–11, 17, 25 ecological, 158 and education, 245–57 forty classic texts in, 12 and gender, 127–8, 139–49 and history, 25–7, 26 levels of functioning, 76–7 origins, 1–3 and philosophy, 65–78

I ND EX

and professional legitimacy, 246–7 and space, 139–49 and spatial political economy, 15–21 sustainable, 151, 163, 168–70, 263 systems view of, 13, 13 theory, 11–14 and urban planning, 13–14, 248, 249, 262 urban form, 14, 25, 221, 263 aesthetics of, 173–5 development of and materialist theory, 47 urban governance, 151 urban morphology, 40, 175, 179 urban planning, 15, 75, 76, 81, 151, 170, 244, 245, 262 and architecture, 13–14, 225, 246 and Geddes, 206–8 legitimising of, 245 and materialist theory, 87 and neocorporatism, 151, 166 and politics, 86–9 privatisation of, 170 as a profession, 245–6 and regulation, 193 and the right to the city, 84 and spatial political economy, 16–17 and the state, 75, 76, 219, 244, 245 and sustainability, 166, 170 and systems theory, 87 systems view of, 13, 13 and typologies, 218–19, 220 and urban design, 13–14, 248, 249, 262 urban population, 159 urban regeneration, 169 urban social movements, 88 urban sociology, 11, 52 urban space, 43, 45, 221–2 in ancient Greece, 90 relationship between urban functions and political dimension of, 227–8 typologies of, 221–3 urban theory and ecological theory, 59–60 urban–suburban dichotomy, 123 urbanisation, 103, 226–7, 243, 261 urbanism and philosophy, 54–65 and postmodernism, 229, 230 and typologies, 226 Urry, John, 114 utopian socialism, 140

utopias, 32–7, 232, 233 Valentine, G., 139, 145 Valentine, M., 90 Vasquez, Adolfo Sanchez, 171 vernacular, 183 Vesely, Dalibor, 72 Vidler, Anthony, 201, 216–18 Vienna, 2, 54, 55–6, 104–5, 195 Wagner’s plan for, 55, 56, 184–5, 185 Vincent, A., 81 Vitruvius, Marcus Pollio, 2, 179 Vittorio Emanuel II monument (Rome), 146, 147 Vorschlag zur Citybeauung, 62, 62 Wagner, Otto, 2, 104, 175, 184–5 Modern Architecture, 2 plan for Vienna, 55, 56, 184–5, 185 Walby, S., 131 Ward, A., 192 Washington consensus, 160 Watson, Peter A Terrible Beauty, 24 Webb, Michael The City Square, 31 Weber, Max, 58 The City, 53 Economy and Society, 2 Weltanschauung, 7, 18, 217 ‘wilderness’, 184 Williams, Raymond, 107 Wilshire, B. Moral Collapse of the University, 248 Wirth, Lewis, 9, 58, 225 ‘Urbanism as a way of life’, 58 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 39, 172 Wolch, Jennifer, 65, 167 Wolfe, Tom, 232 women, 264 connectedness of nature and, 162 and domestic labour, 133, 136 economic subordination of, 133–5 and employment, 131 fear of public space, 144–5 and globalisation, 134–5 and sex tourism, 134 and suburbs, 138–9, 141–3 see also gender Woodward, Ross, 104

303

304 World Bank, 160 World Commission on Environment and Development see Brundtland Report world fairs, 194–5 World Trade Center, 193 Worskett, R., 183

INDE X

Yiftachel, Oren, 14, 218–21 zero, 175 zoning, 56, 137, 227 Zukin, Sharon, 17, 18

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Athens - Wiley Online Library

Index Page numbers in italics denotes an illustration/table Abel, Chris, 14, 218–21 accounting, 227 Acropolis (Athens), 147 Adorno, Theodore, 56, 58...

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